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      Ketoconazole-Tacrolimus Coadministration in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Two-Year Results of a Prospective Randomized Study

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          Background/Aims: In developing countries, kidney transplantation is greatly hindered by financial problems, especially due to costly newer immunosuppressive medications. Ketoconazole increases blood levels of tacrolimus and cyclosporine through inhibition of cytochrome P450 microsomal enzymes. We previously reported on the 6-month safety and the outstanding impact on treatment costs of the ketoconazole-tacrolimus combination in kidney transplant recipients. Data of this combination are still lacking in the literature. We hereby report on the 2-year results of our trial. Methods: This prospective, randomized study included 70 live-donor kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus (age 16–45 years, 54 males and 16 females). Patients were randomized into two equal groups: group 1, where ketoconazole 100 mg/day was added, and group 2 (control group). Results: After 2 years, group 1 (ketoconazole) patients still showed a highly significant reduction of the tacrolimus dose (by 53.8%) and cost (by 52.9%) compared with the control group (p < 0.001) and a significant improvement in graft function in comparison to their own initial graft function (p = 0.002). Throughout the 2 years, no side effects of ketoconazole were noted. Conclusion: We conclude that the long-term ketoconazole-tacrolimus combination therapy in kidney transplant recipients during the 2 years is safe, has an outstanding impact on treatment costs and improves graft outcome.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            The effects of ketoconazole on the intestinal metabolism and bioavailability of cyclosporine*

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              Effects of ketoconazole on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and cortisol secretion.

              The disposition of methylprednisolone was examined in six normal subjects after the injection of 20 mg iv methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Disposition studies were performed both without and with ketoconazole, 200 mg/day, for 6 days. Ketoconazole increased the methylprednisolone AUC and mean residence time (by 135% and 66%, respectively) and decreased clearance (60%), the terminal phase slope, and the volume of distribution. These findings are typical of macrolide antibiotic alteration of methylprednisolone disposition and consistent with reports of inhibition of drug metabolism by ketoconazole. Methylprednisolone reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC by 44%, but morning cortisol concentrations returned to normal. Ketoconazole with methylprednisolone further reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC and suppressed morning cortisol concentrations. Thus ketoconazole inhibits methylprednisolone disposition and extends the adrenal suppression effects of this corticosteroid.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 293-298
                Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
                94133 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:293–298
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 18, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Ketoconazole-tacrolimus kidney transplant


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