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Biodiesel: visão crítica do status atual e perspectivas na academia e na indústria Translated title: Biodiesel: a critical overview on the current status and perspectives at the academy and industry

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      Translated abstract

      This article presents a bibliographic review of research carried out on different alternative processes for biodiesel production. The supercritical and subcritical (non catalytic) reaction conditions, the use of solid basic, solid acid and other heterogeneous catalysts, including the use of immobilized enzymes and whole-cell catalysts are also critically compared with the traditional homogeneous alkaline or acid catalysts that are common on industrial applications. Advantages and limitations of all these processes for the transference from the laboratory to the industry are discussed. A correlation of the chemical composition with the quality parameters of the produced biodiesel is done with aim to stablish adequate procedures for the right selection of the raw-material. Castor bean oil is used as an example of inappropriate oil in order to produce a B100 that fulfill all the international physico-chemical quality standards. In this article are presented research results to adequate the values of viscosity, density and iodine number of the castor and soybean biodiesel to the international standard limits by means blending these both biodiesels at the right ratio.

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      Composite end points in randomized trials: there is no free lunch.

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        The rational clinical examination. Does this infant have pneumonia?

        Acute lower respiratory tract illness is common among children seen in primary care. We reviewed the accuracy and precision of the clinical examination in detecting pneumonia in children. Although most cases are viral, it is important to identify bacterial pneumonia to provide appropriate therapy. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1982 to 1995, reviewing reference lists, reviewing a published compendium of studies of the clinical examination, and consulting experts. Observer agreement is good for most signs on the clinical examination. Each study was reviewed by 2 observers and graded for methodologic quality. There is better agreement about signs that can be observed (eg, use of accessory muscles, color, attentiveness; kappa, 0.48-0.66) than signs that require auscultation of the chest (eg, adventitious sounds; kappa, 0.3). Measurements of the respiratory rate are enhanced by counting for 60 seconds. The best individual finding for ruling out pneumonia is the absence of tachypnea. Chest indrawing, and other signs of increased work of breathing, increases the likelihood of pneumonia. If all clinical signs (respiratory rate, auscultation, and work of breathing) are negative, the chest x-ray findings are unlikely to be positive. Studies are needed to assess the value of clinical findings when they are used together.
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          Transgenic pigs produce functional human factor VIII in milk.

          Deficiency or abnormality of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) causes a bleeding disorder called hemophilia A. Treatment involves FVIII concentrates prepared from pooled human plasma or recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) prepared from mammalian cell culture. The cost of highly purified FVIII or rFVIII is a major factor in hemophilia therapy and restricts prophylaxis. We have sought to generate a new source of rFVIII by targeting expression of the human FVIII cDNA to the mammary gland of transgenic pigs using the regulatory sequences of the mouse whey acidic protein gene. The identity of processed heterodimeric rFVIII was confirmed using specific antibodies, by thrombin digestion and activity assays. The secretion of as much as 2.7 micrograms/ml of rFVIII in milk was over tenfold higher than in normal plasma. Up to 0.62 U/ml of rFVIII was detected in an assay in which rFVIII restored normal clotting activity to FVIII-deficient human plasma.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [2 ] BiodieselBrasil Brasil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            qn
            Química Nova
            Quím. Nova
            Sociedade Brasileira de Química (São Paulo )
            1678-7064
            2009
            : 32
            : 3
            : 776-792
            S0100-40422009000300021
            10.1590/S0100-40422009000300021

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

            General chemistry

            catalysts, biodiesel, transesterification

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