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      Habitat fragmentation and its implications for Endangered chimpanzee Pan troglodytes conservation

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      Oryx

      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Abstract

          Taraba State, Nigeria, is an important conservation site for the Endangered Nigeria–Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti. Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria's largest national park and home to potentially the largest contiguous population of the Nigeria–Cameroon chimpanzee, spans a significant portion of the eastern sector of Taraba and the adjoining Adamawa State. South of the Park, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve comprises two forest fragments and holds a small population of chimpanzees. We investigated the existence of patterns in population structure and dispersal within this region, using microsatellite loci extracted from non-invasive sources of DNA. Our results indicate that dispersal and thus gene flow between the groups of chimpanzees at the Park and Reserve is limited, at least more so than it is within the Park, and we identified a biased sex ratio at the Reserve, forewarning of potential conservation concerns in relation to demographic and genetic stochasticity. We discuss conservation actions that may be applicable to sustaining the population within Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Genetics and extinction

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            Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

            Noninvasive samples are useful for molecular genetic analyses of wild animal populations. However, the low DNA content of such samples makes DNA amplification difficult, and there is the potential for erroneous results when one of two alleles at heterozygous microsatellite loci fails to be amplified. In this study we describe an assay designed to measure the amount of amplifiable nuclear DNA in low DNA concentration extracts from noninvasive samples. We describe the range of DNA amounts obtained from chimpanzee faeces and shed hair samples and formulate a new efficient approach for accurate microsatellite genotyping. Prescreening of extracts for DNA quantity is recommended for sorting of samples for likely success and reliability. Repetition of results remains extensive for analysis of microsatellite amplifications beginning from low starting amounts of DNA, but is reduced for those with higher DNA content.
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              Male competition and paternity in wild chimpanzees of the Taï forest.

              In social animals, competition among males for mates affects individual reproductive success. The priority-of-access model attempts to account for the influence of demographic conditions within groups upon male reproductive success, but empirical data for testing this model are scarce. Our long-term study of chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, encompasses a period of steady decrease in community size and fluctuating numbers of competing males and sexually receptive females. These demographic changes, in combination with genetic assessment of paternity for 48 offspring from three communities, allowed us to quantify the effects of varying levels of competition upon male reproductive success. On average, the highest-ranking male sired 50% of all analyzed offspring during a 14-year period from 1987-2000. Competition among males strongly decreased the relative reproductive success of the alpha male, such that the alpha male's rate of success decreased from 67% with few competitors to only 38% with four or more competitors. The increasing number of synchronously receptive females in large groups also reduced the proportion of paternities by the alpha male. Thus, patterns of paternity in Taï chimpanzees fit well the predictions of the priority-of-access model. We also found that despite the inability of dominants to monopolize reproduction, they achieved a higher reproductive rate in large multimale groups, because these have more females and a higher infant survival rate. Varied levels of male competition within communities seem to explain differences in the reproductive success of alpha males observed in different chimpanzee populations, and in other primate species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Oryx
                Oryx
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0030-6053
                1365-3008
                July 2016
                July 20 2015
                July 2016
                : 50
                : 03
                : 533-536
                Article
                10.1017/S0030605315000332
                © 2016

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