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      X-ray Shielding, Mechanical, Physical, and Water Absorption Properties of Wood/PVC Composites Containing Bismuth Oxide

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          Abstract

          The potential utilization of wood/polyvinyl chloride (WPVC) composites containing an X-ray protective filler, namely bismuth oxide (Bi 2O 3) particles, was investigated as novel, safe, and environmentally friendly X-ray shielding materials. The wood and Bi 2O 3 contents used in this work varied from 20 to 40 parts per hundred parts of PVC by weight (pph) and from 0 to 25, 50, 75, and 100 pph, respectively. The study considered X-ray shielding, mechanical, density, water absorption, and morphological properties. The results showed that the overall X-ray shielding parameters, namely the linear attenuation coefficient (µ), mass attenuation coefficient (µ m), and lead equivalent thickness (Pb eq), of the WPVC composites increased with increasing Bi 2O 3 contents but slightly decreased at higher wood contents (40 pph). Furthermore, comparative Pb eq values between the wood/PVC composites and similar commercial X-ray shielding boards indicated that the recommended Bi 2O 3 contents for the 20 pph (40 ph) wood/PVC composites were 35, 85, and 40 pph (40, 100, and 45 pph) for the attenuation of 60, 100, and 150-kV X-rays, respectively. In addition, the increased Bi 2O 3 contents in the WPVC composites enhanced the Izod impact strength, hardness (Shore D), and density, but reduced water absorption. On the other hand, the increased wood contents increased the impact strength, hardness (Shore D), and water absorption but lowered the density of the composites. The overall results suggested that the developed WPVC composites had great potential to be used as effective X-ray shielding materials with Bi 2O 3 acting as a suitable X-ray protective filler.

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          Low-dose X-ray radiotherapy–radiodynamic therapy via nanoscale metal–organic frameworks enhances checkpoint blockade immunotherapy

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            Green bismuth.

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              A high-performance Bi 2 O 3 /Bi 2 SiO 5 p-n heterojunction photocatalyst induced by phase transition of Bi 2 O 3

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                04 July 2021
                July 2021
                : 13
                : 13
                : 2212
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; wp.worawat@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Polymer PROcessing and Flow (P-PROF) Research Group, Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand; ekachai.wim@ 123456kmutt.ac.th (E.W.); teerasak.mar@ 123456kmutt.ac.th (T.M.); narongrit.som@ 123456kmutt.ac.th (N.S.)
                [3 ]V.P. Wood Co., Ltd., Suksawat 41, Banphueng, Phra Pradaeng Samut Prakan 10130, Thailand; cabonyx.sales@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Specialized Center of Rubber and Polymer Materials in Agriculture and Industry (RPM), Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kiadtisak.s@ 123456ku.th ; Tel.: +662-562-5555 (ext. 646219)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6040-0853
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7986-6418
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7401-3654
                Article
                polymers-13-02212
                10.3390/polym13132212
                8272085
                34279356
                557a2958-62b4-4df4-83e2-9a9e1a2d92ac
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 14 June 2021
                : 02 July 2021
                Categories
                Article

                wpvc,bi2o3,x-ray,shielding,radiation,mechanical properties,composites

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