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      Three new species of Cucullanus (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, with a key to species of Cucullanus from Anguilliformes Translated title: Trois nouvelles espèces de Cucullanus (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) de poissons marins au large de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, avec une clé des espèces de Cucullanus d’Anguilliformes

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Parasitic nematode, taxonomy, Seuratoidea, Osteichthyes, Conger, Gymnothorax, Dentex, South Pacific

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          Abstract

          Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens from the digestive tract of some rarely collected anguilliform and perciform fishes off New Caledonia, three new species of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Cucullanidae) are described: C. austropacificus n. sp. from the longfin African conger Conger cinereus (Congridae), C. gymnothoracis n. sp. from the lipspot moray Gymnothorax chilospilus (Muraenidae), and C. incognitus n. sp. from the seabream Dentex fourmanoiri (Sparidae). Cucullanus austropacificus n. sp. is characterized by the presence of cervical alae, ventral sucker, alate spicules 1.30–1.65 mm long, conspicuous outgrowths of the anterior and posterior cloacal lips and by elongate-oval eggs measuring 89–108 × 48–57 μm; C. gymnothoracis n. sp. is similar to the foregoing species, but differs from it in the absence of cervical alae and the posterior cloacal outgrowth, in the shape and size of the anterior cloacal outgrowth and somewhat shorter spicules 1.12 mm long; C. incognitus n. sp. (based on female morphology) differs from other congeneric species parasitic in the Sparidae mainly in possessing cervical alae, the postequatorial vulva, phasmids situated at the mid-length of the tail and in the size of the eggs (75–84 × 45–66 μm). A key to species of Cucullanus parasitizing anguilliform fishes is provided.

          Translated abstract

          Sur la base d’une étude en microscopie photonique et électronique à balayage de spécimens de nématodes provenant du tube digestif de quelques poissons anguilliformes et perciformes rarement pêchés en Nouvelle-Calédonie, trois nouvelles espèces de Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Cucullanidae) sont décrites : C. austropacificus n. sp. de Conger cinereus (Congridae), C. gymnothoracis n. sp. de Gymnothorax chilospilus (Muraenidae) et C. incognitus n. sp. de Dentex fourmanoiri (Sparidae). Cucullanus austropacificus n. sp. est caractérisé par la présence d’ailes cervicales, une ventouse ventrale, des spicules ailés de 1,30-1,65 mm de long, des excroissances remarquables des lèvres cloacales antérieure et postérieure et d’oeufs ovales et allongés mesurant 89-108 × 48-57 μm. C. gymnothoracis n. sp. est semblable à l’espèce précédente, mais en diffère en l’absence d’ailes cervicales et d’excroissance cloacale postérieure, par la forme et la taille de l’excroissance cloacale antérieure et par des spicules un peu plus courts de 1,12 mm. C. incognitus n. sp. (basé sur la morphologie de la femelle) diffère des autres espèces congénères parasites chez les Sparidae principalement par la possession d’ailes cervicales, une vulve postéquatoriale, des phasmides situés à mi-longueur de la queue et par la taille des oeufs (75–84 × 45–66 μm). Une clé des espèces de Cucullanus parasitant les poissons anguilliformes est fournie.

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          Most cited references 46

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          A quick and simple method, usable in the field, for collecting parasites in suitable condition for both morphological and molecular studies.

          Many methods have been proposed for collecting and fixing parasites, but most were written before the molecular age, and were intended to be practised by experienced parasitologists in well-equipped laboratories. We describe here a very simple method, illustrated by photographs, for collecting helminths from the digestive tract of vertebrates. It only requires a few plastic vials, some ethanol and a means to heat water. Basically, the method consists of: (a) the extraction of all organs from the abdominal cavity; (b) opening the digestive system longitudinally; (c) agitate gut and contents in a saline solution (i.e. ca. 9% NaCl or 1/4 sea water in tap water); (d) decant in saline as many times as needed to clean contents; (e) immediately fix parasites in near-boiling saline; (f) discard saline and keep specimens in 95% ethanol. Additional information is given for collecting parasites from fish gills with a similar process. The method will collect most helminths (digeneans, larval cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans) from the digestive tract, and monogeneans and isopod and copepod crustaceans from fish gills. The specimens will be suitable for both morphological study and DNA sequencing. The method is simple, fast, inexpensive and can be used by untrained personnel, even in the field without electricity and without a binocular microscope. It can also be used by trained parasitologists who need to expedite treatment of abundant samples.
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            Diversity of trypanorhynch metacestodes in teleost fishes from coral reefs off eastern Australia and New Caledonia

            Trypanorhynch metacestodes were examined from teleosts from coral reefs in eastern Australia and from New Caledonia. From over 12,000 fishes examined, 33 named species of trypanorhynchs were recovered as well as three species of tentacularioids which are described but not named. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, including more than 100 new host records. Lacistorhynchoid and tentacularioid taxa predominated with fewer otobothrioid and gymnorhynchoids. Five species, Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Floriceps minacanthus, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum, Pseudolacistorhynchus heroniensis and Ps. shipleyi, were particularly common and exhibited low host specificity. Limited data suggested a higher diversity of larval trypanorhynchs in larger piscivorous fish families. Several fish families surveyed extensively (Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Kyphosidae and Scaridae) yielded no trypanorhynch larvae. The overall similarity between the fauna of the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia was 45%. Where available, information on the adult stages in elasmobranchs has been included.
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              Cucullanid nematodes (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from deep-sea marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Dichelyne etelidis n. sp.

              Three nematode species of the family Cucullanidae, intestinal parasites of marine perciform fishes, are reported from off New Caledonia: Cucullanus bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992 from the crimson jobfish Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes) and the goldflag jobfish Pristipomoides auricilla (Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka) (new host record) (both Lutjanidae); Dichelyne etelidis n. sp. from the deep-water red snapper Etelis carbunculus Cuvier (type-host) and the deep-water longtail red snapper Etelis coruscans Valenciennes (both Lutjanidae); and Dichelyne sp. (only one female) from the trumpet emperor Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) (Lethrinidae). Detailed light and electron microscopical studies revealed in C. bourdini some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the location of the excretory pore, nature of the vulva and the size of fully-developed eggs. The new species, D. etelidis, is characterised mainly by the length of the spicules (462-748 μm), a single intestinal caecum, the location of the deirids and excretory pore, the arrangement of the genital papillae and the host group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                20 September 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences Branišovská 31 370 05 České Budějovice Czech Republic
                [2 ] Institut Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE CP 51 57 rue Cuvier 75005 Paris France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: moravec@ 123456paru.cas.cz
                Article
                parasite180099 10.1051/parasite/2018050
                10.1051/parasite/2018050
                6146675
                30234482
                © F. Moravec and J.-L. Justine, published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Research Article

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