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      The Nutritional Behaviour of Pregnant Women in Poland

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          Abstract

          A woman’s diet during pregnancy can significantly affect her health, as well as her child’s future development and well-being. Unfortunately, many pregnant women do not follow the recommended nutritional guidelines. The reason could be that they have insufficient knowledge about nutritional best practice. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional behaviour of pregnant women in Poland. The research was conducted using a questionnaire to survey a sample of N = 815 pregnant women in first pregnancy. Among the findings were that the subjects ate an excessive amount of sweets, and white bread, and consumed insufficient quantities of fish, milk and fermented milk drinks. Subjects chose white bread more often than wholemeal bread, and fruit rather than vegetables. The study showed that the nutritional behaviour of pregnant women was characterised by many bad practices.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

          The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions.
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            Nutrition During Pregnancy, Lactation and Early Childhood and its Implications for Maternal and Long-Term Child Health: The Early Nutrition Project Recommendations

             Berthold Koletzko (corresponding) ,  K.M. Godfrey,  Lucilla Poston (2019)
            Background: A considerable body of evidence accumulated especially during the last decade, demonstrating that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and disease (“developmental or metabolic programming”). Methods: Researchers involved in the European Union funded international EarlyNutrition research project consolidated the scientific evidence base and existing recommendations to formulate consensus recommendations on nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy, during infancy and early childhood that take long-term health impact into account. Systematic reviews were performed on published dietary guidelines, standards and recommendations, with special attention to long-term health consequences. In addition, systematic reviews of published systematic reviews on nutritional interventions or exposures in pregnancy and in infants and young children aged up to 3 years that describe effects on subsequent overweight, obesity and body composition were performed. Experts developed consensus recommendations incorporating the wide-ranging expertise from additional 33 stakeholders. Findings: Most current recommendations for pregnant women, particularly obese women, and for young children do not take long-term health consequences of early nutrition into account, although the available evidence for relevant consequences of lifestyle, diet and growth patterns in early life on later health and disease risk is strong. Interpretation: We present updated recommendations for optimized nutrition before and during pregnancy, during lactation, infancy and toddlerhood, with special reference to later health outcomes. These recommendations are developed for affluent populations, such as women and children in Europe, and should contribute to the primary prevention of obesity and associated non-communicable diseases.
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              The importance of maternal diet quality during pregnancy on cognitive and behavioural outcomes in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

              Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a quantitative summary of the literature exploring the relationship between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and child cognitive and affective outcomes. We investigate whether there are indications for robust associations and aim to identify methodological strengths and challenges of the current research to provide suggestions of improvement for future research. Design and participants Relevant studies were identified through a systematic literature search in relevant databases. All studies investigating maternal diet quality during pregnancy in relation to child cognitive or affective functioning in children of elementary school age or younger were assessed for inclusion. Results 18 relevant studies, comprising 63 861 participants were identified. The results indicated a small positive association between better maternal diet quality during pregnancy and child functioning. We observed publication bias and significant heterogeneity between studies, where type of diet classification, publication year and outcome domain together accounted for about 30% of this heterogeneity. Trim and fill analysis substantiated the presence of publication bias for studies in the affective domain and showed an adjusted effect size of Hedge’s g=0.088 (p=0.0018) (unadjusted g=0.093 (p=0.03)). We observed no publication bias in the cognitive domain, where results indicated a slightly larger effect size (g=0.14 (p<0.0001)) compared with that of the affective domain. The overall summary effect size was g=0.075 (p<0.0001) adjusted for publication bias (unadjusted g=0.112 (p=0.0001)). Child diet was not systematically controlled for in the majority of the studies. Conclusion The results indicated that a better maternal diet quality during pregnancy has a small positive association with child neurodevelopment, with more reliable results seen for cognitive development. These results warrant further research on the association between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and cognitive and affective aspects of child neurodevelopment, whereby it is crucial that future studies account for child diet in the analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                08 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 16
                : 22
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce PL-08-110, Poland; katarzyna.lugowska.zdoz@ 123456uph.edu.pl
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-16-04357
                10.3390/ijerph16224357
                6888330
                31717286
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                diet, maternal nutrition, nutritional behaviour, pregnancy

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