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      Translation and Validation of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: The Nepali Version

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          Abstract

          Introduction. For proper management of anxious dental patients it is imperative to assess their levels of dental anxiety before treatment. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) is the most commonly used questionnaire to assess dental anxiety. But a Nepali version of MDAS is still lacking. Hence, the objective of this study was to develop a reliable and valid Nepali version of MDAS. Materials and Methods. The English version of the MDAS was translated into Nepali following a forward and backward translation process. Following pretesting and cognitive interviewing a final version of Nepali questionnaire was obtained. One hundred and fifty patients attending Department of Orthodontics completed the Nepali version of MDAS questionnaire at their convenience. Also, patients were asked to rate their overall anxiety on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). A test-retest of the questionnaire was performed with 30 patients after 2 weeks. Results. Cronbach's alpha value of the Nepali version of MDAS was 0.775. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between test and retest was 0.872. Spearman's correlation coefficient between the total MDAS score and VAS score was 0.838. Conclusion. The translated Nepali version of MDAS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the dental anxiety of Nepali patients.

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          The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: validation and United Kingdom norms.

          The Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) has been used extensively in epidemiology and clinical research. It is brief and is claimed to have good psychometric properties. However, it does not include any reference to local anaesthetic injections, a major focus of anxiety for many. Also, the multiple choice answers for three of the four questions are not clearly in order of severity of anxiety as the CDAS intends. The answers differ among the questions thus making them difficult to compare. They include descriptions of physiological reactions and anxiety, confusing two loosely related components of the experience. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) described, added a question on anxiety about oral injections. New multiple choice answers, in clear order of anxiety and the same for each question, were provided. Twenty five dental personnel all confirmed independently the order of the multiple choice answers for the MDAS. They disagreed among themselves however, about the appropriate sequence for the answers denoting intermediate anxiety in the CDAS. Therefore the CDAS, unlike the MDAS, can provide meaningful measures only of extremely high or extremely low dental anxiety. Of 1392 subjects tested, 13 per cent expressed extreme anxiety about injections on the MDAS but were only 'fairly' or less anxious about drilling. Thus, the CDAS, unlike the MDAS, must overlook subjects very afraid of injections only. Data confirm the high reliability and validity of the MDAS and provide norms for phobic and nonphobic subjects.
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            Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review

            Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy, and is currently the most accepted and successful psychological treatment for anxiety and phobia. In certain situations, where the patient is not able to respond to and cooperate well with psychotherapeutic interventions, is not willing to undergo these types of treatment, or is considered dental-phobic, pharmacological therapies such as sedation or general anesthesia should be sought.
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              THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALE TO MEASURE FEAR.

              James Geer (1965)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int Sch Res Notices
                Int Sch Res Notices
                ISRN
                International Scholarly Research Notices
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2356-7872
                2017
                29 January 2017
                : 2017
                : 5495643
                Affiliations
                Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Surgery, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Jorma Virtanen

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6824-607X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0561-6018
                Article
                10.1155/2017/5495643
                5303604
                558c3ea3-61a9-490f-bbf5-4fa3e5ef0c02
                Copyright © 2017 Jamal Giri et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 27 October 2016
                : 11 January 2017
                Categories
                Research Article

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