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Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

metabolism, Urothelium, prevention & control, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, cytology, Urinary Bladder, pharmacology, Thiazolidinediones, Signal Transduction, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Rats, Phosphorylation, biosynthesis, agonists, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Male, Immunohistochemistry, Epidermal Growth Factor, Diet, Cell Proliferation, Animals, urine, Acids

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      We previously reported prevention of urolithiasis and associated rat urinary bladder tumors by urine acidification (via diet acidification) in male rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha/gamma agonist muraglitazar. Because urine acidification could potentially alter PPAR signaling and/or cellular proliferation in urothelium, we evaluated urothelial cell PPARalpha, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, PPAR signaling, and urothelial cell proliferation in rats fed either a normal or an acidified diet for 5, 18, or 33 days. A subset of rats in the 18-day study also received 63 mg/kg of the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone daily for the final 3 days to directly assess the effects of diet acidification on responsiveness to PPARgamma agonism. Urothelial cell PPARalpha and gamma expression and signaling were evaluated in the 18- and 33-day studies by immunohistochemical assessment of PPAR protein (33-day study only) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurement of PPAR-regulated gene expression. In the 5-day study, EGFR expression and phosphorylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and egfr and akt2 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Diet acidification did not alter PPARalpha, delta, or gamma mRNA or protein expression, PPARalpha- or gamma-regulated gene expression, total or phosphorylated EGFR protein, egfr or akt2 gene expression, or proliferation in urothelium. Moreover, diet acidification had no effect on pioglitazone-induced changes in urothelial PPARgamma-regulated gene expression. These results support the contention that urine acidification does not prevent PPARgamma agonist-induced bladder tumors by altering PPARalpha, gamma, or EGFR expression or PPAR signaling in rat bladder urothelium.

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