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      Urinary Chromium as a Biological Marker of Environmental Exposure: What Are the Limitations?

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      Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 25

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          The tagging of red cells and plasma proteins with radioactive chromium.

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            Essentiality of chromium in humans.

            Chromium is an essential nutrient required for normal sugar and fat metabolism. Insufficient dietary chromium is associated with maturity-onset diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases. Dietary chromium intake in the U.S. and other developed countries is roughly half of the minimum suggested intake of 50 micrograms. Well controlled studies involving human subjects have demonstrated beneficial effects of supplemental chromium on fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, insulin binding, and hypoglycemic blood glucose values and symptoms. Since chromium is a nutrient and not a therapeutic agent, it will only benefit those people whose signs and symptoms are due to marginal or overt chromium deficiency. Stresses including high sugar diets, strenuous exercise, physical trauma, infection and certain diseases exacerbate the signs and symptoms associated with marginal intakes of dietary chromium. While excessive levels of chromium are usually limited to industrial settings, marginal dietary chromium intake is widespread in the general population and may lead to serious health problems.
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              Urinary chromium as an indicator of the exposure of welders to chromium.

              Five welders working with high alloy Cr-Ni steel and one working with mild steel were followed during one work week. The chromium concentration in air was measured concomitantly with urinary chromium determinations. The water-soluble chromium concentrations in air exceeded 0.05 mg/m3 during welding with coated electrodes, but metal inert-gas (MIG) welding produced much lower concentrations. The proportion of water-soluble hexavalent chromium in the air was usually more than 50% of the total chromium concentration during welding with coated electrodes, whereas less than 10% of the chromium produced during MIG welding was in a water-soluble. Since water-soluble chromium (hexavalent) is the more important biologically, the determination of both water-soluble and water-insoluble chromium concentrations is emphasized instead of the measurement of the total concentration. The urinary chromium concentration proved to be a good indicator of short-term exposure to water-soluble chromium when exposure was above the current threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3, concentrations of more than 30 microgram/g of creatinine representing an exposure level higher than the threshold limit value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
                Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
                Elsevier BV
                02732300
                August 1997
                August 1997
                : 26
                : 1
                : S23-S34
                Article
                10.1006/rtph.1997.1135
                © 1997

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