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      Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Severe Chronic Renal Failure Is Corrected by Very-Low Dietary Phosphate Intake and Calcium Carbonate Supplementation

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          The main purpose of our study was to verify the effect of a very-low-protein, low-phosphorus diet, supplemented with essential amino acids and keto analogues and with calcium carbonate, on circulating levels of intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) in severe chronic renal failure patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, not treated with any vitamin D preparation. To this aim, we shifted 21 chronic uremics (12 males, 9 females; age 56 ± 13 years) with serum creatinine >6.5 mg/dl and i-PTH >150 pg/ml, from a standard low-protein diet (0.6 g/kg/day approximately) to a very-low-protein (0.3 g/kg/day), very-low-phosphorus (5 mg/kg/day) diet supplemented with a mixture of essential amino acids and calcium keto analogues (Ketodiet), calcium carbonate (2–4 g/day), iron, and vitamin B<sub>12</sub> preparations. The energy supply of both diets was 30–35 kcal/kg/day. Exclusion criteria were a poor compliance with dietary or supplement prescriptions or signs of autonomic hyperparathyroidism. After 4 ± 2 months of Ketodiet, the i-PTH serum levels decreased by 49% as a mean (from 441 ± 233 to 225 ± 161 pg/ml, p < 0.001); serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased, whereas serum calcium increased. The great reduction of serum and urinary urea demonstrated a good compliance with Ketodiet, and no sign of protein malnutrition was observed. These findings confirm that even in severe chronic uremic patients dietary phosphorus restriction and calcium carbonate supplementation lower i-PTH serum levels. This is one of the goals of the dietary treatment that can be safely achieved, provided good compliance both with the dietary prescriptions and with adequate energy and supplement intakes.

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          Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

          In recent years, several authors have noted that oral calcium treatment was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Calcium carbonate was examined for its ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were examined in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were treated with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet targeted at the American Heart Association Step-1 diet for 8 weeks before and while receiving placebo or calcium carbonate (9.98 mmol [400 mg] of elemental calcium) three times daily with meals for 6 weeks. Patients were then crossed over to the alternate treatment for an additional 6-week period. Compared with placebo, calcium carbonate achieved a 4.4% reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and a 4.1% increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 6.5% with calcium carbonate treatment. Calcium carbonate treatment did not significantly affect blood pressure or serum levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein Apo B, or calcium. Relative urinary saturation ratios of calcium oxalate levels were unchanged during calcium carbonate therapy. Compliance with diet and treatment was excellent and no significant adverse effects were noted. Thus, calcium carbonate was a modestly effective and well-tolerated adjunct to diet in the management of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in this clinical study.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            June 1998
            27 May 1998
            : 79
            : 2
            : 137-141
            Clinica Medica I, Università di Pisa, Italia
            45015 Nephron 1998;79:137–141
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Tables: 4, References: 19, Pages: 5
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45015
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