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      Anatomical and morphological aspects of papillae, epithelium, muscles, and glands of rats’ tongue: Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopic study

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          The purpose of this paper is to describe the research results of the morphological structure of white laboratory rats’ tongue at the macro-, micro-, and ultrastructural levels by scanning, light, and transmission electron microscopy.


          Our results show that the tongue of these rats has a number of unique morphological features that are different from the tongue of other rodents consequently to allow identifying their species-specific features.


          Our findings have shown the features of the tongue structure of white laboratory rats at micro-, macro-, and ultrascopic levels. The data analysis revealed that mucous membrane of the tongue contains a large number of papillae, such as fungiform, filiform, foliate, vallate, and multifilamentary papillae. Each has a different shape, size, and location. The tongue’s morphological feature consists of three types of filiform papillae, well-developed foliate and multifilamentary papillae, as well as one large and similar smaller circumvallate papillae. The muscle of the tongue contains a large number of mitochondria of different shapes and sizes. However, we have received data for a complete picture of structure of this organ that will be useful in further experimental and morphological studies of the white laboratory rats.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Three-dimensional architecture of the connective tissue core of the lingual papillae in the guinea pig.

           K Kobayashi (1990)
          The three-dimensional structure of the connective tissue core (CTC) of the lingual papillae of the guinea pig was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, after fixation with Karnovsky's fixative and after removal of the epithelial cell layers by long-term treatment with hydrochloric acid. The CTC of four types of lingual papillae was revealed. (a) Filiform papillae distributed over the anterior part (comprising about one half of the tongue) are characterized by having a few long connective tissue protrusions arranged transversely to the long axis of the tongue, while large conical papillae distributed on the intermolar prominence (intermediate part comprising most of the posterior half of the tongue) have more numerous and longer connective tissue protrusions, forming a bundle. (b) Fungiform papillae scattered among the filiform papillae are restricted to the anterior part of the tongue and possess connective tissue components in the form of a "fist-like" structure. (c) Foliate papillae are found in lateral and posterior locations. At both sites they contain slender epithelial crypts. Removal of the epithelia reveals wide grooves which correspond to the epithelial crypts. The rims of these grooves are surrounded by numerous small protrusions.
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            Prion infection of skeletal muscle cells and papillae in the tongue.

            The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the HY strain of the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. Localization of PrP(Sc) to the neuromuscular junction suggests that this synapse is a site for prion agent spread between motor axon terminals and muscle cells. Following intracerebral inoculation, the majority of PrP(Sc) in the tongue was found in the lamina propria, where it was associated with sensory nerve fibers in the core of the lingual papillae. PrP(Sc) staining was also identified in the stratified squamous epithelium of the lingual mucosa. These findings indicate that prion infection of skeletal muscle cells and the epithelial layer in the tongue can be established following the spread of the prion agent from nerve terminals and/or axons that innervate the tongue. Our data suggest that ingestion of meat products containing prion-infected tongue could result in human exposure to the prion agent, while sloughing of prion-infected epithelial cells at the mucosal surface of the tongue could be a mechanism for prion agent shedding and subsequent prion transmission in animals.
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              The dual pattern of keratinization in filiform papillae on rat tongue.

               A Farbman (1970)

                Author and article information

                [ 1 ]Department of Normal Anatomy with Courses of the Topographical Anatomy, the Operational Surgery, Histology, Cytology and Embryology, Sumy State University , Sumy, Ukraine
                [ 2 ]Department of Family and Public Medicine, Section “Stomatology”, Sumy State University , Sumy, Ukraine
                [ 3 ]Department of Pathology, Sumy State University , Sumy, Ukraine
                [ 4 ] Sumy State University , Sumy, Ukraine
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Mykola Lyndin, MD, PhD; Department of Pathology, Sumy State University, 2, Rymskogo-Korsakova St., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine; Phone: +380 977155524; Fax: +380 54 266 09 50; E-mail: lyndin_nikolay@
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                22 September 2017
                September 2017
                : 9
                : 3
                : 168-177
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 19
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for this study.
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