Three unusual cases are described which demonstrated hypomagnesemia and symptoms resembling magnesium deficiency syndrome. The hypomagnesemia was most likely secondary to urinary losses from diuresis following release of post-renal obstruction and renal homotransplantation. Heretofore, this association has not been described. Case I was unique because of the post-obstructive diuresis in the face of marked renal impairment. Case 2 is noteworthy because of the profound hypomagnesemia, 0.4 mEq/l, and because of the development of congestive heart failure. The rapid improvement noted in cardiac function with magnesium replacement suggests a relationship to magnesium deficiency.