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      In vitro effect of two commercial anti-coccidial drugs against myxospores of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) Translated title: Effet in vitro de deux médicaments anticoccidiens commerciaux contre les myxospores de Kudoa septempunctata génotype ST3 (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida)

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          Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) myxospores infect the trunk muscles of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, two popular commercially formulated anti-coccidial drugs (amprolium hydrochloride and toltrazuril) were serially diluted and incubated with purified mature Kudoa septempunctata myxospores. The viability of K. septempunctata spores was determined after a 2-day incubation followed by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Amprolium hydrochloride significantly decreased spore viability (18% of control) at a concentration of 920 μg/mL, whereas toltrazuril showed almost no effect (83% of control). Viability of the control (untreated spores) was 90%. In vivo studies are required to confirm the efficacy of amprolium hydrochloride in fish infected with K. septempunctata myxospores on their growth and immune system performance.

          Translated abstract

          Les myxospores de Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) infectent les muscles du cardeau hirame ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Dans cette étude, deux médicaments anticoccidiens commercialisés populaires (chlorhydrate d’amprolium et toltrazuril) ont été dilués en série et incubés avec des myxospores mûres purifiées de K. septempunctata. La viabilité des spores de K. septempunctata a été déterminée après une incubation de 2 jours, suivie par des colorations au Hoechst 33342 et à l’iodure de propidium et microscopie électronique à balayage. Le chlorhydrate d’amprolium a significativement diminué la viabilité des spores (18 % du témoin) à une concentration de 920 μg/mL, alors que le toltrazuril n’a pratiquement pas eu d’effet (83 % du témoin). La viabilité du témoin (spores non traitées) était de 90 %. Des études in vivo sont nécessaires pour confirmer l’efficacité du chlorhydrate d’amprolium chez les poissons infectés par les myxospores de K. septempunctata sur leur croissance et leur performance immunitaire.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of innovative treatments against Myxobolus sp. infection in Diplodus puntazzo.

          The potential antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of three treatments against myxosporean parasites on the innate immune system of sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) was investigated. Fish naturally infected with Myxobolus sp. (Bivalvulida/Platysporina), a histozoic parasite mainly affecting the renal interstitial tissue, were treated by oral administration of a combination of salinomycin with amprolium, Origanum essential oil or fumagillin in a small-scale field trial. Various leucocyte functions influenced by myxosporean infection were examined in order to determine treatment effects on leucocyte immunocompetence of treated fish. One month post treatment all drugs caused a significant decrease in prevalence and intensity of infection in comparison to untreated, infected fish. The effect was most prominent in salinomycin with amprolium treated fish, which 1-month post treatment contained either no cysts at all or a few spores free in melanomacrophage centres revealing almost total elimination of the parasite and the antiparasitic action of the treatment. There was no histopathological evidence of drug toxicity. Antiparasitic action was accompanied by a significant enhancement of phagocytic activity demonstrated by ingestion of large numbers of latex beads and the secretion of high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates by phagocytes in vitro. Complete restoration of the diminished mitogenic responses and serum lysozyme secretion was also detected in salinomycin with amprolium-treated fish compared to untreated, infected fish. These data suggest that salilomycin with amprolium may be a promising treatment for myxosporean infections in intensively cultured warm-water fish, exhibiting action partially via the enhancement of host, innate immune functions and leading to parasite elimination.
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            Toltrazuril effective against a broad spectrum of protozoan parasites.

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              Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

              Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/).

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                21 March 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                [1 ] School of Medicine, Jeju National University Jeju 63243 Republic of Korea
                [2 ] Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Pyoseon-myeon, Segwipo-si Jeju 63629 Republic of Korea
                [3 ] Marine Applied Microbes and Aquatic Organism Disease Control Laboratory, Department of Aquatic Biomedical Sciences, School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University Jeju 690-756 Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding author: jyh4586@ 123456korea.kr
                parasite170002 10.1051/parasite/2017012
                © M. Ahn et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 5
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