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      Stress (Heat Shock) Proteins : Molecular Chaperones in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

      1 , 1

      Circulation Research

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          How a cell responds to stress is a central problem in cardiovascular biology. Diverse physiological stresses (eg, heat, hemodynamics, mutant proteins, and oxidative injury) produce multiple changes in a cell that ultimately affect protein structures and function. Cells from different phyla initiate a cascade of events that engage essential proteins, the molecular chaperones, in decisions to repair or degrade damaged proteins as a defense strategy to ensure survival. Accumulative evidence indicates that molecular chaperones such as the heat shock family of stress proteins (HSPs) actively participate in an array of cellular processes, including cytoprotection. The versatility of the ubiquitous HSP family is further enhanced by stress-inducible regulatory networks, both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In the present review, we discuss the regulation and function of HSP chaperones and their clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning, aging, and, conceivably, mutations in genes encoding contractile proteins and ion channels.

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          Most cited references 158

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          Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding.

          The folding of many newly synthesized proteins in the cell depends on a set of conserved proteins known as molecular chaperones. These prevent the formation of misfolded protein structures, both under normal conditions and when cells are exposed to stresses such as high temperature. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the ATP-dependent mechanisms used by the Hsp70 and chaperonin families of molecular chaperones, which can cooperate to assist in folding new polypeptide chains.
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            Protein folding in the cell.

             M Gething,  R Sambrook (1992)
            In the cell, as in vitro, the final conformation of a protein is determined by its amino-acid sequence. But whereas some isolated proteins can be denatured and refolded in vitro in the absence of other macromolecular cellular components, folding and assembly of polypeptides in vivo involves other proteins, many of which belong to families that have been highly conserved during evolution.
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              Heme oxygenase: function, multiplicity, regulatory mechanisms, and clinical applications.

               Mahin Maines (1988)
              In biological systems oxidation of heme is carried out by two isozymes of the microsomal heme oxygenase, HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is the commonly known heme oxygenase, the activity of which can be induced by up to 100-fold in response to a wide variety of stimuli (metals, heme, hormones, etc.). HO-2 was only recently discovered, and the isozyme appears to be uninducible. The two forms are products of two different genes and differ in their tissue expression. The primary structure of HO-1 and an HO-2 fragment of 91 amino acid residues show only 58% homology, but share a region with 100% secondary structure homology. This region is believed to be the catalytic site. Most likely, HO-1 gene is regulated in the same manner as metallothione in the gene. HO-1 has a heat shock regulatory element, and possibly many promoter elements, which bind to respective inducers and cause transcription of the gene. In vivo induction of HO-1 activity in the liver is accompanied by decreases in the total P-450 levels and, in a reconstituted system, cytochrome P-450b heme can be quantitatively converted to biliverdin by HO-1 and HO-2. The enzyme activity is inhibited in vivo for extended periods subsequent to binding of Zn- and Sn- protoporphyrins. This property appears useful for the suppression of bilirubin production. The metalloporphyrins, however, are not innocuous and cause major disruptions in cellular metabolism. In this review recent findings on heme oxygenase are highlighted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation Research
                Circulation Research
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7330
                1524-4571
                July 27 1998
                July 27 1998
                : 83
                : 2
                : 117-132
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Internal Medicine and Integrative Biology Graduate Program, Molecular Cardiology Research Laboratories, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex.
                Article
                10.1161/01.RES.83.2.117
                9686751
                © 1998

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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