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      Oral oocyst-induced mouse model of toxoplasmosis: effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii strains of different genotypes, dose, and mouse strains (transgenic, out-bred, in-bred) on pathogenesis and mortality.

      Parasitology

      Animals, Disease Models, Animal, Genotype, HLA-A1 Antigen, metabolism, Ileum, parasitology, pathology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Oocysts, physiology, Toxoplasma, pathogenicity, Toxoplasmosis, genetics, mortality

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          Abstract

          Humans and other hosts acquire Toxoplasma gondii infection by ingesting tissue cysts in undercooked meat, or by food or drink contaminated with oocysts. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent clinical disease due this parasite in humans, although, various T. gondii vaccine candidates are being developed. Mice are generally used to test the protective efficacy of vaccines because they are susceptible, reagents are available to measure immune parameters in mice, and they are easily managed in the laboratory. In the present study, pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis was studied in mice of different strains, including Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) transgenic mice infected with different doses of T. gondii strains of different genotypes derived from several countries. Based on many experiments, the decreasing order of infectivity and pathogenicity of oocysts was: C57BL/6 background interferon gamma gene knock out (KO), HLA-A*1101, HLA-A*0201, HLA-B*0702, Swiss Webster, C57/black, and BALB/c. Mice fed as few as 1 oocyst of Type I and several atypical strains died of acute toxoplasmosis within 21 days p.i. Some Type II, and III strains were less virulent. The model developed herein should prove to be extremely useful for testing vaccines because it is possible to accurately quantitate a challenge inoculum, test the response to different strains of T. gondii using the same preparations of oocysts which are stable for up to a year, and to have highly reproducible responses to the infection.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          22078010
          3683600
          10.1017/S0031182011001673

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