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      Benchmarking Geant4 for Simulating Galactic Cosmic Ray Interactions Within Planetary Bodies

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          Abstract

          Galactic cosmic rays undergo complex nuclear interactions with nuclei within planetary bodies that have little to no atmosphere. Radiation transport simulations are a key tool used in understanding the neutron and gamma-ray albedo coming from these interactions and tracing these signals back to geochemical composition of the target. We study the validity of the code Geant4 for simulating such interactions by comparing simulation results to data from the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment. Different assumptions regarding the physics are explored to demonstrate how these impact the Geant4 simulation results. In general, all of the Geant4 results over-predict the data, however, certain physics lists perform better than others. In addition, we show that results from the radiation transport code MCNP6 are similar to those obtained using Geant4.

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          Distribution of hydrogen in the near surface of Mars: evidence for subsurface ice deposits.

          Using the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey, we have identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen. The data indicate the presence of a subsurface layer enriched in hydrogen overlain by a hydrogen-poor layer. The thickness of the upper layer decreases with decreasing distance to the pole, ranging from a column density of about 150 grams per square centimeter at -42 degrees latitude to about 40 grams per square centimeter at -77 degrees. The hydrogen-rich regions correlate with regions of predicted ice stability. We suggest that the host of the hydrogen in the subsurface layer is ice, which constitutes 35 +/- 15% of the layer by weight.
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            Global distribution of neutrons from Mars: results from Mars odyssey.

            Global distributions of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. These fluxes are selectively sensitive to the vertical and lateral spatial distributions of H and CO2 in the uppermost meter of the martian surface. Poleward of +/-60 degrees latitude is terrain rich in hydrogen, probably H2O ice buried beneath tens of centimeter-thick hydrogen-poor soil. The central portion of the north polar cap is covered by a thick CO2 layer, as is the residual south polar cap. Portions of the low to middle latitudes indicate subsurface deposits of chemically and/or physically bound H2O and/or OH.
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              Fluxes of fast and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: evidence for water ice at the lunar poles.

              Maps of epithermal- and fast-neutron fluxes measured by Lunar Prospector were used to search for deposits enriched in hydrogen at both lunar poles. Depressions in epithermal fluxes were observed close to permanently shaded areas at both poles. The peak depression at the North Pole is 4.6 percent below the average epithermal flux intensity at lower latitudes, and that at the South Pole is 3.0 percent below the low-latitude average. No measurable depression in fast neutrons is seen at either pole. These data are consistent with deposits of hydrogen in the form of water ice that are covered by as much as 40 centimeters of desiccated regolith within permanently shaded craters near both poles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                15 October 2018
                Article
                10.1029/2018EA000400
                1810.06483

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Earth and Space Science, 5, 324-338. (2018)
                astro-ph.IM astro-ph.EP

                Planetary astrophysics, Instrumentation & Methods for astrophysics

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