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      Discrimination as a predictor of poor mental health among LGBTQ+ people during the COVID-19 pandemic: cross-sectional analysis of the online Queerantine study

      research-article
      1 , , 2
      BMJ Open
      BMJ Publishing Group
      COVID-19, mental health, social medicine

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To assess the mental health and experiences of discrimination among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ) people at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.

          Design

          Data come from a cross-sectional online survey targeted at LGBTQ+ people, which collected data on mental health, experiences of discrimination and a number of other pandemic-related experiences. To examine the association between sexual orientation and gender and mental health and experiences of discrimination, we conducted regression analyses that adjusted for a range of sociodemographic variables.

          Setting

          A web-based survey was used to collect data between the end of April and mid July 2020.

          Participants

          An analytical sample of 310 LGBTQ+ respondents aged 18 and above.

          Main outcome measures

          We assessed mental health with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale and with the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D-10). We asked respondents about discriminatory experiences because of their LGBTQ+ identity during the coronavirus pandemic.

          Results

          Perceived stress scores among our LGBTQ+ sample were high (mean: 7.67; SD: 3.22). Based on a score of 10 or more on the CES-D-10, the majority of participants had high levels of depressive symptoms (72%). Around one-in-six respondents reported some form of discrimination since the start of the pandemic because they were LGBTQ+ (16.7%). The average score for perceived stress increased by 1.44 points (95% CI 0.517 to 2.354) for respondents who had experienced discrimination versus those who had not. Similarly, the odds of exhibiting significant depressive symptomology increased threefold among those who had experienced discrimination compared with those who had not (OR: 3.251; 95% CI 1.168 to 9.052).

          Conclusions

          The LGBTQ+ community exhibited high levels of depression, stress and experienced discrimination during the coronavirus pandemic. High levels of poor mental health were partially explained by experiences of discrimination, which had a large, consistent and pernicious impact on mental health.

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          Most cited references42

          • Record: found
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          A Global Measure of Perceived Stress

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            Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence.

            Ilan Meyer (2003)
            In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress--explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Screening for Depression in Well Older Adults: Evaluation of a Short Form of the CES-D

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2021
                25 June 2021
                25 June 2021
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]departmentEPPI-Centre, UCL Social Research Institute , University College London , London, UK
                [2 ]departmentSocial Work and Social Care , University of Sussex , Falmer, Sussex, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Dylan Kneale; D.Kneale@ 123456ucl.ac.uk

                DK and LB are joint first authors.

                Article
                bmjopen-2021-049405
                10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049405
                8238529
                34172551
                55ff386d-2353-4caa-a729-59431e65a05e
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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                Categories
                Public Health
                1506
                2474
                1724
                Original research
                Custom metadata
                unlocked

                Medicine
                covid-19,mental health,social medicine
                Medicine
                covid-19, mental health, social medicine

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