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      Effect of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelial function, endogenous fibrinolysis and platelet activation in male cigarette smokers.

      Heart

      Young Adult, Adult, drug effects, Vasodilation, Tobacco Products, physiopathology, blood, adverse effects, Smoking, Prospective Studies, Plethysmography, Platelet Aggregation, prevention & control, etiology, Myocardial Infarction, Middle Aged, Male, Humans, Follow-Up Studies, Flow Cytometry, pharmacokinetics, administration & dosage, Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Endothelium, Vascular, Double-Blind Method, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Dietary Supplements, Cross-Over Studies, Brachial Artery

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          Abstract

          The effects of ω-3 fatty acids on endothelial function, fibrinolysis and platelet function are uncertain. We investigated the effects of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelial vasomotor function, endogenous fibrinolysis, and platelet and monocyte activation in healthy cigarette smokers; a group at increased risk of myocardial infarction. Twenty cigarette smokers were recruited into a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation. ω-3 fatty acid supplements (2 g/day) or placebo for a 6-week period. Peripheral blood was taken for analysis of platelet and monocyte activation, and forearm blood flow (FBF) was assessed in a subset of 12 smokers during intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine, substance P and sodium nitroprusside. Stimulated plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) concentrations were measured during substance P infusion. All vasodilators caused dose-dependent increases in FBF (p<0.0001). Compared with placebo, ω-3 fatty acid supplementation led to greater endothelium-dependent vasodilatation with acetylcholine and substance P (p=0.0032 and p=0.056). Substance P caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma t-PA concentrations (p<0.0001) that was greater after ω-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo (8.8±2.3 IU ml(-1) vs 3.6±1.1 IU ml(-1); p=0.029). ω-3 fatty acids did not affect platelet-monocyte aggregation, platelet P-selectin or CD40L, or monocyte CD40. We have demonstrated for the first time that ω-3 fatty acids augment acute endothelial t-PA release and improve endothelial vasomotor function in cigarette smokers. Improved endogenous fibrinolysis and endothelial function may represent important mechanisms through which ω-3 fatty acids confer potential cardiovascular benefits.

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          Journal
          10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302924
          23184014

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