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      Crosstalk of mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA and Their Regulatory Pattern in Pulmonary Fibrosis

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          Abstract

          Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNA (miRNA), long ncRNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA), are regulators of important biological functions. Therefore, understanding their crosstalk and regulatory patterns can provide treatment for diseases. In this study, differentially expressed RNA transcripts were obtained by RNA sequencing in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Four miRNAs, 10 lncRNAs, and two circRNAs were tested to validate the sequencing. There were differentially expressed 585 mRNAs, 236 miRNAs, 272 lncRNAs, and 74 circRNAs in pulmonary fibrosis. Their location on chromosome, length varieties, interaction, and host genes were analyzed. lnc949, circ949, and circ057 were chosen to explore the detailed crosstalk and regulatory pattern, which were measured by using RNA-FISH, dual-luciferase reporter assay, real-time cell analysis and rescue experiment, co-localization analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull down. The data showed that the three ncRNAs were predominant in the cytoplasm, and their regulatory patterns were focused on post-transcription. The fibrotic function of lnc949 depended on its host gene FKBP5. circ949 and circ057 formed a regulatory network with lnc865 and lnc556 to simultaneously regulate miR-29b-2-5p targeting STAT3 phosphorylation. Collectively, different RNAs can crosstalk with each other to regulate pulmonary fibrosis through different regulatory patterns. We hope these data can provide a full concept of RNA transcripts, leading to a new treatment for pulmonary fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Molecular interplay of the noncoding RNA ANRIL and methylated histone H3 lysine 27 by polycomb CBX7 in transcriptional silencing of INK4a.

          Expression of the INK4b/ARF/INK4a tumor suppressor locus in normal and cancerous cell growth is controlled by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me) as directed by the Polycomb group proteins. The antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL of the INK4b/ARF/INK4a locus is also important for expression of the protein-coding genes in cis, but its mechanism has remained elusive. Here we report that chromobox 7 (CBX7) within the polycomb repressive complex 1 binds to ANRIL, and both CBX7 and ANRIL are found at elevated levels in prostate cancer tissues. In concert with H3K27me recognition, binding to RNA contributes to CBX7 function, and disruption of either interaction impacts the ability of CBX7 to repress the INK4b/ARF/INK4a locus and control senescence. Structure-guided analysis reveals the molecular interplay between noncoding RNA and H3K27me as mediated by the conserved chromodomain. Our study suggests a mechanism by which noncoding RNA participates directly in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The H19 lincRNA is a developmental reservoir of miR-675 which suppresses growth and Igf1r

            The H19 large intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) is one of the most highly abundant and conserved transcripts in mammalian development, being expressed in both embryonic and extraembryonic cell lineages, yet its physiological function is unknown. Here we show that miR-675, a microRNA (miRNA) embedded within H19’s first exon, is expressed exclusively in the placenta from the gestational time point when placental growth normally ceases, and placentas that lack H19 continue to grow. Overexpression of miR-675 in a range of embryonic and extraembryonic cell lines results in their reduced proliferation; targets of the miRNA are upregulated in the H19 null placenta, including the growth promoting Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r). Moreover, the excision of miR-675 from H19 is dynamically regulated by the stress response RNA binding protein HuR. These results suggest that H19’s main physiological role is in limiting growth of the placenta prior to birth, by regulated processing of miR-675. The controlled release of miR-675 from H19 may also allow rapid inhibition of cell proliferation in response to cellular stress or oncogenic signals.
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              The BRAF pseudogene functions as a competitive endogenous RNA and induces lymphoma in vivo.

              Research over the past decade has suggested important roles for pseudogenes in physiology and disease. In vitro experiments demonstrated that pseudogenes contribute to cell transformation through several mechanisms. However, in vivo evidence for a causal role of pseudogenes in cancer development is lacking. Here, we report that mice engineered to overexpress either the full-length murine B-Raf pseudogene Braf-rs1 or its pseudo "CDS" or "3' UTR" develop an aggressive malignancy resembling human diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We show that Braf-rs1 and its human ortholog, BRAFP1, elicit their oncogenic activity, at least in part, as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that elevate BRAF expression and MAPK activation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, we find that transcriptional or genomic aberrations of BRAFP1 occur frequently in multiple human cancers, including B cell lymphomas. Our engineered mouse models demonstrate the oncogenic potential of pseudogenes and indicate that ceRNA-mediated microRNA sequestration may contribute to the development of cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
                American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
                2162-2531
                26 August 2019
                06 December 2019
                26 August 2019
                : 18
                : 204-218
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cellular and Genetic Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003, China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai 264003, China
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Nursing, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou 256602, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author: Xiaodong Song, Department of Cellular and Genetic Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, No. 346, Guanhai Road, Laishan District, Yantai 264003, China. songxd71@ 123456163.com
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author: Changjun Lv, Department of Cellular and Genetic Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, No. 346, Guanhai Road, Laishan District, Yantai City, 264003, China. lucky_lcj@ 123456sina.com
                [4]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S2162-2531(19)30232-X
                10.1016/j.omtn.2019.08.018
                6796619
                31561125
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine

                pulmonary fibrosis, mrna, mirna, lncrna, circrna

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