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Risk of Ischemic Stroke in High Risk Atrial Fibrillation Patients during Periods of Warfarin Discontinuation for Surgical Procedures

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Abstract

Importance: The risk of ischemic stroke during periods of warfarin discontinuation for surgical procedures is recognized but not well characterized. Objective: The study aimed to quantitate the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high risk atrial fibrillation during periods of warfarin discontinuation. Design, Setting and Participants: A cohort of 4,060 patients (mean follow-up period of 3.5 ± 1.3 years) were randomized into the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management study. Patients enrolled in the study had atrial fibrillation plus at least one other risk factor for stroke or death: age ≥65 years', systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, transient ischemic attack, prior stroke, left atrium >50 mm, left ventricular fractional shortening <25% or left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. Exposure: Warfarin discontinuation for procedure. Main Outcome and Measures: The association of warfarin discontinuation with the incidence of ischemic stroke using pooled repeated measures and Cox proportional hazards analyses during follow-up after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking and study period. Results: Warfarin discontinuation for procedure occurred in 265 (0.4%) of the 71,355 person observations. Compared with those without warfarin discontinuation, the rate of ischemic stroke was higher among participants with surgery-related warfarin discontinuation (1.1% of 265 person observations vs. 0.2% of 71,090 person observations, p = 0.001). Warfarin discontinuation was associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke (relative risk 5.8; 95% CI 1.8-18.4) after adjusting for potential confounders. The population-attributable risk associated with surgery-related warfarin discontinuation was estimated to be 23.1% (95% CI 15.2-30.9%) for ischemic stroke. Conclusions and Relevance: The 6-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke associated with discontinuation of warfarin for surgical procedures must be recognized in high risk atrial fibrillation patients and considered in the risk-benefit analysis of any procedure.

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Most cited references 8

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Is prehypertension a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases?

The Joint National Committee on High Blood Pressure identified a new category of blood pressure in adults termed prehypertension. Our objective was to determine the long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with this new category in a well-defined cohort of adults. We evaluated the association of prehypertension (120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg) and hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg) with the incidence of atherothrombotic brain infarction (ABI), all strokes, myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary artery disease (CAD) using pooled repeated measures and Cox proportional hazards analyses during follow-up after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, and study period in a cohort of 5181 persons who participated in the Framingham Study. Among the 11,116 person observations with a mean follow-up period of 9.9+/-1.0 years, prehypertension was not associated with an increased risk for ABI (relative risk [RR], 2.2; 95% CI, 0.5 to 9.3). Among the 11,802 person observations with a mean follow-up period of 9.7+/-1.5 years, prehypertension was associated with an increased risk for MI (RR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.5). Prehypertension was also associated with an increased risk of CADs among the 11,570 person observations (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). Prehypertension appears to be associated with an increased risk of MI and CAD but not stroke. Further studies are required to confirm the anticipated benefits of identifying and intervening in persons with prehypertension.
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Management of anticoagulation before and after elective surgery.

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Perioperative Bridging Anticoagulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

It is uncertain whether bridging anticoagulation is necessary for patients with atrial fibrillation who need an interruption in warfarin treatment for an elective operation or other elective invasive procedure. We hypothesized that forgoing bridging anticoagulation would be noninferior to bridging with low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of perioperative arterial thromboembolism and would be superior to bridging with respect to major bleeding.

Author and article information

Affiliations
Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute (ZQSI), St. Cloud, Minn., USA
Journal
CED
Cerebrovasc Dis
10.1159/issn.1015-9770
Cerebrovascular Diseases
Cerebrovasc Dis
S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
1015-9770
1421-9786
November 2016
21 June 2016
: 42
: 5-6
: 346-351
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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