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      Pathogenesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm: A Review

      , , ,
      Pathogens
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with several human infections, mainly related to healthcare services. In the hospital, it is associated with resistance to several antibiotics, which poses a great challenge to therapy. However, one of the biggest challenges in treating P. aeruginosa infections is that related to biofilms. The complex structure of the P. aeruginosa biofilm contributes an additional factor to the pathogenicity of this microorganism, leading to therapeutic failure, in addition to escape from the immune system, and generating chronic infections that are difficult to eradicate. In this review, we address several molecular aspects of the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa biofilms.

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          Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections.

          Bacteria that attach to surfaces aggregate in a hydrated polymeric matrix of their own synthesis to form biofilms. Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Studies of biofilms have revealed differentiated, structured groups of cells with community properties. Recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of bacterial community behavior point to therapeutic targets that may provide a means for the control of biofilm infections.
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            Physiological heterogeneity in biofilms.

            Biofilms contain bacterial cells that are in a wide range of physiological states. Within a biofilm population, cells with diverse genotypes and phenotypes that express distinct metabolic pathways, stress responses and other specific biological activities are juxtaposed. The mechanisms that contribute to this genetic and physiological heterogeneity include microscale chemical gradients, adaptation to local environmental conditions, stochastic gene expression and the genotypic variation that occurs through mutation and selection. Here, we discuss the processes that generate chemical gradients in biofilms, the genetic and physiological responses of the bacteria as they adapt to these gradients and the techniques that can be used to visualize and measure the microscale physiological heterogeneities of bacteria in biofilms.
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              Bacterial quorum sensing: its role in virulence and possibilities for its control.

              Quorum sensing is a process of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly. This process enables bacteria to express energetically expensive processes as a collective only when the impact of those processes on the environment or on a host will be maximized. Among the many traits controlled by quorum sensing is the expression of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. Here we review the quorum-sensing circuits of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae. We outline these canonical quorum-sensing mechanisms and how each uniquely controls virulence factor production. Additionally, we examine recent efforts to inhibit quorum sensing in these pathogens with the goal of designing novel antimicrobial therapeutics.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                PATHCD
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI AG
                2076-0817
                March 2022
                February 27 2022
                : 11
                : 3
                : 300
                Article
                10.3390/pathogens11030300
                35335624
                5634b07c-257f-4284-9fc9-d1b12425c9d8
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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