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      Successful Use of Denosumab for Life-Threatening Hypercalcemia in a Pediatric Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

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          Introduction: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rare and usually symptomatic in children. There is no approved medication to lower serum calcium levels in this patient group. Denosumab is used in adult patients with osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism. To our knowledge, only 1 case of denosumab treatment in a child with severe PHPT has been reported to date. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old female was referred to our clinic with symptoms including pathologic fractures, nausea, emesis, and progressive weight loss. At admission, her serum total calcium was 4.17 mmol/L (reference range 2.15–2.55), parathyroid hormone 2,151 pg/mL (15–65), and phosphate 1.07 mmol/L (1.45–1.78). Due to potentially life-threatening hypercalcemia, denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously was administered after obtaining informed consent. Serum calcium levels were reduced within 12 h of injection and the patient’s condition rapidly improved, which allowed genetic testing to be done prior to surgery. A heterozygous mutation in the CDC73 gene was revealed, and a parathyroidectomy was performed on day 22 after denosumab administration. Morphological examination revealed solitary parathyroid adenoma. After surgery, hypocalcemia developed requiring high doses of alfacalcidol and calcium supplements. Conclusion: Our case supports the previous observations in adults that denosumab can be safely and effectively used as a preoperative treatment in patients with PHPT and severe hypercalcemia and shows that it may be used in pediatric patients.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Is Open Access

          ANNOVAR: functional annotation of genetic variants from high-throughput sequencing data

          High-throughput sequencing platforms are generating massive amounts of genetic variation data for diverse genomes, but it remains a challenge to pinpoint a small subset of functionally important variants. To fill these unmet needs, we developed the ANNOVAR tool to annotate single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions, such as examining their functional consequence on genes, inferring cytogenetic bands, reporting functional importance scores, finding variants in conserved regions, or identifying variants reported in the 1000 Genomes Project and dbSNP. ANNOVAR can utilize annotation databases from the UCSC Genome Browser or any annotation data set conforming to Generic Feature Format version 3 (GFF3). We also illustrate a ‘variants reduction’ protocol on 4.7 million SNVs and indels from a human genome, including two causal mutations for Miller syndrome, a rare recessive disease. Through a stepwise procedure, we excluded variants that are unlikely to be causal, and identified 20 candidate genes including the causal gene. Using a desktop computer, ANNOVAR requires ∼4 min to perform gene-based annotation and ∼15 min to perform variants reduction on 4.7 million variants, making it practical to handle hundreds of human genomes in a day. ANNOVAR is freely available at http://www.openbioinformatics.org/annovar/ .
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            HGVS Recommendations for the Description of Sequence Variants: 2016 Update.

            The consistent and unambiguous description of sequence variants is essential to report and exchange information on the analysis of a genome. In particular, DNA diagnostics critically depends on accurate and standardized description and sharing of the variants detected. The sequence variant nomenclature system proposed in 2000 by the Human Genome Variation Society has been widely adopted and has developed into an internationally accepted standard. The recommendations are currently commissioned through a Sequence Variant Description Working Group (SVD-WG) operating under the auspices of three international organizations: the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS), the Human Variome Project (HVP), and the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Requests for modifications and extensions go through the SVD-WG following a standard procedure including a community consultation step. Version numbers are assigned to the nomenclature system to allow users to specify the version used in their variant descriptions. Here, we present the current recommendations, HGVS version 15.11, and briefly summarize the changes that were made since the 2000 publication. Most focus has been on removing inconsistencies and tightening definitions allowing automatic data processing. An extensive version of the recommendations is available online, at http://www.HGVS.org/varnomen.
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              Identification of MEN1 and HRPT2 somatic mutations in paraffin-embedded (sporadic) parathyroid carcinomas.

              Parathyroid carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose. Recently, it has been shown that mutations in the HRPT2 gene (encoding parafibromin) are associated with the development of parathyroid carcinoma. Although MEN1 is not typically thought to be involved in carcinoma formation, parathyroid carcinoma may be an extremely rare feature of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. We recently concluded that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the MEN1 gene is present in a relatively large number of parathyroid carcinomas, often in combination with LOH at the HRPT2 locus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MEN1 and HRPT2 mutations in sporadic parathyroid tumours fulfilling histological criteria for malignancy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) parathyroid carcinoma tissue from 28 cases identified in the period 1985-2000 in the Netherlands was studied. HRPT2 (27/28 cases) and MEN1 (23/28 cases) were analysed by direct sequencing. Somatic MEN1 mutations were found in three of 23 (13%) sporadic parathyroid carcinoma cases; these consisted of one missense and two frameshift mutations. One of the latter two cases displayed lymph-node and lung metastases during follow-up. Six HRPT2 mutations were found in 4/27 cases (15%): five were truncating mutations and one was a missense mutation. Consistent with previously published reports, we found double mutations (2x) and germline mutations (2x) in apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinomas. These results suggest that not only HRPT2 but also MEN1 mutations may play a role in sporadic parathyroid cancer formation.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                30 September 2020
                : 93
                : 4
                : 272-278
                aDepartment of Neuroendocrinology and Bone Diseases, Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russian Federation
                bDepartment and Laboratory of Inherited Endocrine Disorders, Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russian Federation
                Author notes
                *Anatoly Tiulpakov, Department of Inherited Endocrine Disorders, Endocrinology Research Centre, Dmitriya Ulianova Street, 11, Moscow 117036 (Russian Federation), genes@endocrincentr.ru
                510625 Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93:272–277
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 6
                Novel Insights from Clinical Practice / Case Report


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