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      Global Evolution of Research in Artificial Intelligence in Health and Medicine: A Bibliometric Study

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          The increasing application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in health and medicine has attracted a great deal of research interest in recent decades. This study aims to provide a global and historical picture of research concerning AI in health and medicine. A total of 27,451 papers that were published between 1977 and 2018 (84.6% were dated 2008–2018) were retrieved from the Web of Science platform. The descriptive analysis examined the publication volume, and authors and countries collaboration. A global network of authors’ keywords and content analysis of related scientific literature highlighted major techniques, including Robotic, Machine learning, Artificial neural network, Artificial intelligence, Natural language process, and their most frequent applications in Clinical Prediction and Treatment. The number of cancer-related publications was the highest, followed by Heart Diseases and Stroke, Vision impairment, Alzheimer’s, and Depression. Moreover, the shortage in the research of AI application to some high burden diseases suggests future directions in AI research. This study offers a first and comprehensive picture of the global efforts directed towards this increasingly important and prolific field of research and suggests the development of global and national protocols and regulations on the justification and adaptation of medical AI products.

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          Artificial intelligence in medicine.

          Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.
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            GAN-based Synthetic Medical Image Augmentation for increased CNN Performance in Liver Lesion Classification

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              Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research

               Qiang Yao,  Kai Chen,  Lan Yao (2014)
              Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the mainstream topics in HSR fields. These findings will provide evidence of the current status and trends in HSR all over the world, as well as clues to the impact of this popular topic; thus, helping scientific researchers and policy makers understand the panorama of HSR and predict the dynamic directions of research.

                Author and article information

                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                14 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 8
                : 3
                [1 ]Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
                [2 ]Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; carl.latkin@
                [3 ]Center of Excellence in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; giang.coentt@ (G.T.V.); ngaiman_cheung@ (N.-M.C.)
                [4 ]Center of Excellence in Evidence-based Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; nurtwsw@
                [5 ]Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam; giang.ighi@ (G.H.H.); huong.ighi@ (H.L.T.N.)
                [6 ]Center for Interdisciplinary Social Research, Phenikaa University, Yen Nghia, Ha Dong District, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam; hoang.vuongquan@ (Q.-H.V.); tung.homanh@ (M.-T.H.); lvphuong@ (V.-P.L.); toan.homanh@ (M.-T.H.)
                [7 ]Faculty of Economics and Finance, Phenikaa University, Yen Nghia, Ha Dong district, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam
                [8 ]Sciences Po Paris, Campus de Dijon, 21000 Dijon, France; thutrang.vuong@
                [9 ]Vietnam-Germany Hospital, 16 Phu Doan street, Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; kimcuongvd@
                [10 ]Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
                [11 ]Information Systems Technology and Design (ISTD) pillar, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore
                [12 ]A.I. for Social Data Lab (AISDL), Vuong & Associates, 3/161 Thinh Quang, Dong Da District, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; htn2107@
                [13 ]Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore 119228, Singapore; cyrushosh@
                [14 ]Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam; pcmrhcm@
                [15 ]Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
                [16 ]Biomedical Global Institute of Healthcare Research & Technology (BIGHEART), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: bach.ipmph@ ; Tel.: +84-98-222-8662
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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