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      Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Food Packaging Applications

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          Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium.

          We report here preliminary studies of biocidal effects and cellular internalization of ZnO nanoparticles on Escherichia coli bacteria. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) (DEG) medium by forced hydrolysis of ionic Zn2+ salts. Particle size and shape were controlled by addition of small molecules and macromolecules such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether, and bovine serum albumin. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to characterize particle structure, size, and morphology. Bactericidal tests were performed in Luria-Bertani medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems with different concentrations of small and macromolecules and also with ZnO nanoparticles. TEM analyses of bacteria thin sections were used to study biocidal action of ZnO materials. The results confirmed that E. coli cells after contact with DEG and ZnO were damaged showing a Gram-negative triple membrane disorganization. This behavior causes the increase of membrane permeability leading to accumulation of ZnO nanoparticles in the bacterial membrane and also cellular internalization of these nanoparticles.
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            Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Campylobacter jejuni.

            The antibacterial effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on Campylobacter jejuni was investigated for inhibition and inactivation of cell growth. The results showed that C. jejuni was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoparticles. The MIC of ZnO nanoparticles for C. jejuni was determined to be 0.05 to 0.025 mg/ml, which is 8- to 16-fold lower than that for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (0.4 mg/ml). The action of ZnO nanoparticles against C. jejuni was determined to be bactericidal, not bacteriostatic. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the majority of the cells transformed from spiral shapes into coccoid forms after exposure to 0.5 mg/ml of ZnO nanoparticles for 16 h, which is consistent with the morphological changes of C. jejuni under other stress conditions. These coccoid cells were found by ethidium monoazide-quantitative PCR (EMA-qPCR) to have a certain level of membrane leakage. To address the molecular basis of ZnO nanoparticle action, a large set of genes involved in cell stress response, motility, pathogenesis, and toxin production were selected for a gene expression study. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that in response to treatment with ZnO nanoparticles, the expression levels of two oxidative stress genes (katA and ahpC) and a general stress response gene (dnaK) were increased 52-, 7-, and 17-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the antibacterial mechanism of ZnO nanoparticles is most likely due to disruption of the cell membrane and oxidative stress in Campylobacter.
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              Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions.

              The potential eco-toxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), silicon dioxide (SiO(2)), and zinc oxide (ZnO) water suspensions was investigated using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli as test organisms. These three photosensitive nanomaterials were harmful to varying degrees, with antibacterial activity increasing with particle concentration. Antibacterial activity generally increased from SiO(2) to TiO(2) to ZnO, and B. subtilis was most susceptible to their effects. Advertised nanoparticle size did not correspond to true particle size. Apparently, aggregation produced similarly sized particles that had similar antibacterial activity at a given concentration. The presence of light was a significant factor under most conditions tested, presumably due to its role in promoting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, bacterial growth inhibition was also observed under dark conditions, indicating that undetermined mechanisms additional to photocatalytic ROS production were responsible for toxicity. These results highlight the need for caution during the use and disposal of such manufactured nanomaterials to prevent unintended environmental impacts, as well as the importance of further research on the mechanisms and factors that increase toxicity to enhance risk management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Food and Bioprocess Technology
                Food Bioprocess Technol
                Springer Nature
                1935-5130
                1935-5149
                July 2012
                February 2012
                : 5
                : 5
                : 1447-1464
                Article
                10.1007/s11947-012-0797-6
                © 2012
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