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      Distribution and diversity of Fagaceae in Hidalgo, Mexico

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          Abstract

          Abstract: Background: The family Fagaceae is one of the most important in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Fagus and Quercus are distributed in Mexico, the former in Northeastern Mexico, while the latter reaches a high diversity in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. In Hidalgo state, located mainly in the Sierra Madre Oriental, knowledge of the Fagaceae diversity is still uncertain. Questions and/or hypothesis: We carried out a taxonomic revision of the genus and species of Fagaceae in Hidalgo state. We determined how many and which species are distributed in Hidalgo. We also present a morphological description and ecological characters of each one. Studied species: The species of the family Fagaceae. Study site: Hidalgo state, Mexico. Method: We collected herbarium specimens, made field observations and reviewed herbarium data of Fagaceae specimens at FCME, INEGI, MEXU, ENCB, SLPM, HUAP, HUMO, XAL and partly BH herbaria. In addition, we checked taxonomic literature and protologues of each species. Results: We found one species of Fagus and 43 of Quercus, 22 of which belong to the section Quercus (white oaks) and 21 to section Lobatae (red oaks). Morphological descriptions, altitudinal and geographical distribution, vegetation types of each species and a dichotomous key for species identification are presented. Illustrations and photographs of the species are also included. Conclusions: A high diversity of Fagaceae species is present in Hidalgo state. In Mexico, Hidalgo ranks in fifth place for oak species diversity, just behind Oaxaca (50 species), Puebla (50), San Luis Potosí (45), and Jalisco (45).

          Translated abstract

          Resumen: Antecedentes: La familia Fagaceae es una de las más importantes en las regiones templadas del Hemisferio Norte. Fagus y Quercus se distribuyen en México, el primero en el noreste, el último alcanza una gran diversidad en la Sierra Madre Oriental, México. En el estado de Hidalgo, ubicado principalmente en la Sierra Madre Oriental, el conocimiento de la diversidad de la familia Fagaceae es aun incompleto. Preguntas y/o hipótesis: Realizamos una revisión taxonómica de los géneros y las especies de la familia Fagaceae en el estado de Hidalgo. Determinamos cuántas y cuáles especies se distribuyen en Hidalgo. También presentamos descripciones morfológicas y datos ecológicos de cada especie. Species estudiadas: Las especies de la familia Fagaceae. Sitio de estudio: Estado de Hidalgo, México. Método: Colectamos ejemplares para herbario, hicimos observaciones de campo para las especies y revisamos los ejemplares de Fagaceae depositados en los herbarios FCME, INEGI, MEXU, ENCB, SLPM, HUAP, HUMO, XAL y parcialmente en BH. Adicionalmente revisamos la literatura taxonómica y los protólogos para cada especie. Resultados: Encontramos una especie de Fagus y 43 de Quercus, 22 de las cuales pertenecen al section Quercus (encinos blancos) y 21 a section Lobatae (encinos rojos). Se presentan descripciones morfológicas, datos de distribución altitudinal, geográfica y por tipos de vegetación para cada especie; así como una clave dicotómica para su identificación. También se incluyen ilustraciones y fotografías de las especies. Conclusiones: El estado de Hidalgo contiene una alta diversidad de especies de Fagaceae. Esta entidad ocupa el quinto lugar de diversidad de Fagaceae después de Oaxaca (50 especies de encinos), Puebla (50), San Luis Potosí (45) y Jalisco (45).

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          Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico

          Abstract: An updated inventory of the native vascular plants of Mexico records 23,314 species, distributed in 2,854 genera, 297 families, and 73 orders. The flora includes 1,039 species of ferns and lycophytes, 149 gymnosperms, and 22,126 angiosperms. On average, the number of synonyms per species is 1.3 (mode = 1). The number of species places Mexico as the country with the fourth largest floristic richness in the world, although among the non-insular countries, by its number of endemic species (about 50%) is second only surpassed by South Africa. The species distribution among higher taxonomic categories, and the richness and endemism values in the 32 states of Mexico are discussed. This compilation allows us to assess the flora's contribution to the overall Mexican biodiversity.
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            Diversidad del género Quercus (Fagaceae) en México

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              Natural hybridization and hybrid zones between Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes (Fagaceae) in Mexico: morphological and molecular evidence.

              Hybrid zones provide interesting systems to study genetic and ecological interaction between different species. The correct identification of hybrids is necessary to understand the evolutionary process involved in hybridization. An oak species complex occurring in Mexico formed by two parental species, Quercus crassifolia H. & B. and Q. crassipes H. & B., and their putative hybrid species, Q. dysophylla, was analyzed with molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPDs]) and morphological tools in seven hybrid zones (10 trees per taxa in each hybrid zone) and two pure sites for each parental species (20 trees per site). We tested whether geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases its morphological and genetic similarity with its parent. Seventeen morphological traits were measured in 8700 leaves from 290 trees. Total DNA of 250 individuals was analyzed with six diagnostic RAPD primers. Quercus crassifolia differed significantly from Q. crassipes in all the examined characters. Molecular markers and morphological characters were highly coincident and support the hypothesis of hybridization in this complex, although both species remain distinct in mixed stands. Clusters and a hybrid index (for molecular and morphological data) showed that individuals from the same parental species were more similar among themselves than to putative hybrids, indicating occasional hybridization with segregation in hybrid types or backcrossing to parents. Evidence does not indicate a unidirectional pattern of gene flow.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bs
                Botanical Sciences
                Bot. sci
                Sociedad Botánica de México A.C. (México, DF, Mexico )
                2007-4298
                2007-4476
                December 2017
                : 95
                : 4
                : 660-721
                Affiliations
                [1] Ciudad de México orgnameUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México Mexico
                [3] Ciudad de México orgnameUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México Mexico
                [2] Estado de México orgnameUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México Mexico
                Article
                S2007-42982017000400660
                10.17129/botsci.1020
                56407b31-096b-4c16-8fe9-df23ffdb9fad

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 14 November 2016
                : 20 April 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 62
                Product

                SciELO Mexico

                Categories
                Taxonomy and floristics

                México,estado de Hidalgo,florística,Quercus,Fagus,Mexico,Hidalgo state,floristics

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