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      Butyrate stimulates adipose lipolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through histone hyperacetylation-associated β3 -adrenergic receptor activation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice : Butyrate stimulates adipose lipolysis and oxidative phosphorylation

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          Abstract

          What is the central question of this study? Butyrate can prevent diet-induced obesity through increasing energy expenditure. However, it is unclear whether β3 -adrenergic receptors (ARβ3) mediate butyrate-induced adipose lipolysis. What is the main finding and its importance? Short-term oral administration of sodium butyrate is effective in alleviating diet-induced obesity through activation of ARβ3-mediated lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Butyrate can prevent diet-induced obesity through increasing energy expenditure. However, it is unclear whether ARβ3 mediates butyrate-induced adipose lipolysis. In this study, weaned mice were were fed control (Con) or high-fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks to establish obesity. High-fat diet-induced obese mice maintained on the HF diet were divided into two subgroups; the HFB group was gavaged with 80 mg sodium butyrate (SB) per mouse every other day for 10 days, whereas the HF group received vehicle. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to determine the status of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) on the promoter of the β3 -adrenergic receptor (ARβ3) gene in epididymal white adipose tissue. It was shown that five gavage doses of SB significantly alleviated HF diet-induced obesity and restored plasma leptin concentration to the control level. Protein contents of ARβ3 and PKA, as well as ATGL and p-HSL (Ser563), were significantly upregulated in the HFB group compared with the HF group. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was enhanced by SB treatment. Sodium butyrate significantly increased the expression of four out of 13 mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and significantly upregulated the protein contents of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α and COX4. Moreover, SB administration enhanced the expression of ARβ3 and its downstream signalling. The G protein-coupled receptor 43 and p-CREB (Ser133) were significantly stimulated by SB. In addition, an active transcription marker, H3K9Ac, was significantly enriched on the promoter of the ARβ3 gene. Our results indicate that short-term oral administration of SB is effective in alleviating diet-induced obesity through activation of the ARβ3-mediated lipolysis in the epididymal white adipose tissue.

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          Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation.

          Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced at high concentration by bacteria in the gut and subsequently released in the bloodstream. Basal acetate concentrations in the blood (about 100 microm) can further increase to millimolar concentrations following alcohol intake. It was known previously that SCFAs can activate leukocytes, particularly neutrophils. In the present work, we have identified two previously orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, as receptors for SCFAs. Propionate was the most potent agonist for both GPR41 and GPR43. Acetate was more selective for GPR43, whereas butyrate and isobutyrate were more active on GPR41. The two receptors were coupled to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, intracellular Ca2+ release, ERK1/2 activation, and inhibition of cAMP accumulation. They exhibited, however, a differential coupling to G proteins; GPR41 coupled exclusively though the Pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o family, whereas GPR43 displayed a dual coupling through Gi/o and Pertussis toxin-insensitive Gq protein families. The broad expression profile of GPR41 in a number of tissues does not allow us to infer clear hypotheses regarding its biological functions. In contrast, the highly selective expression of GPR43 in leukocytes, particularly polymorphonuclear cells, suggests a role in the recruitment of these cell populations toward sites of bacterial infection. The pharmacology of GPR43 matches indeed the effects of SCFAs on neutrophils, in terms of intracellular Ca2+ release and chemotaxis. Such a neutrophil-specific SCFA receptor is potentially involved in the development of a variety of diseases characterized by either excessive or inefficient neutrophil recruitment and activation, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or alcoholism-associated immune depression. GPR43 might therefore constitute a target allowing us to modulate immune responses in these pathological situations.
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            Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase.

            Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue. Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis. It is interesting that ATGL contains a "patatin domain" common to plant acyl-hydrolases. ATGL is highly expressed in adipose tissue of mice and humans. It exhibits high substrate specificity for triacylglycerol and is associated with lipid droplets. Inhibition of ATGL markedly decreases total adipose acyl-hydrolase activity. Thus, ATGL and HSL coordinately catabolize stored triglycerides in adipose tissue of mammals.
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              The link between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

              The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically in recent years, and the cluster of metabolic abnormalities it encompasses results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The role of abdominal (visceral) obesity and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms central to this association have been the subject of intensive research in recent times. The aim of this review is to correlate data in this area, highlighting the central role of excess visceral fat and its secreted adipokines, and to review existing and emerging therapies. Data were generated from a search of the PubMed database using the terms 'abdominal obesity', 'metabolic syndrome', 'insulin resistance', 'adipokines', 'interleukin-6 (IL-6)', 'adiponectin', 'tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)' and 'cardiovascular disease'. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a pro-inflammatory state, and the role of visceral obesity is thought to be central to this. Visceral obesity leads to alteration of the normal physiological balance of adipokines, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and a pro-atherogenic state. In association with this, the presence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking results in a significantly elevated cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolic) risk. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms central to this association has led to the development of potential therapeutic agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Experimental Physiology
                Exp Physiol
                Wiley
                09580670
                February 01 2017
                February 01 2017
                February 01 2017
                : 102
                : 2
                : 273-281
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry; Nanjing Agricultural University; Nanjing 210095 PR China
                [2 ]College of Life Science and Technology; Yancheng Teachers University; Jiangsu, Yancheng 224051 PR China
                [3 ]Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing; Quality and Safety Control; Nanjing 210095 PR China
                Article
                10.1113/EP086114
                28028849
                564468b4-1c9c-41e1-9431-4661af8703f3
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions

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