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      Meibomian Gland Assessment in Routine Ophthalmology Practice

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      Metabolites
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the connection between meibomian gland (MG) excreta quantity and quality after MG expression (MGX), dry eye disease (DED) symptoms, and objective DED signs and to clarify the relationship between dry eye and MG function in DED pathophysiology. The study included 200 subjects, 100 with and 100 without dry eye symptoms. Schein questionnaire was used to determine the severity of dry eye symptoms and self-reported skin type for facial skin dryness self-evaluation. Objective dry eye signs were assessed by monitoring conjunctival hyperemia, lid parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein surface staining and digital MGX. Subjects with DED symptoms had significantly lower MG quantity scores than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Meibum quality and quantity scores significantly correlated with female gender (p = 0.002), Schein questionnaire score (p < 0.001), fluorescein corneal staining score (p = 0.019), self-reported skin type (p < 0.001), TBUT (p < 0.001) and LIPCOF (p = 0.041). After adjustment for age and gender in a logistic regression analysis, dry eye was independently and significantly associated with self-reported skin type (OR 0.73, p < 0.001), LIPCOF (OR 1.04, p < 0.001), fluorescein corneal staining (OR 1.05, p = 0.019), TBUT (OR 0.77, p < 0.001) and meibum quantity score (OR 0.59, p < 0.001). Dry eye symptoms and objective signs correlated well in this study. MGX discriminated between the subjects with and without DED symptoms and was associated with other objective DED signs. Results showed a significant association between meibum quality and quantity, MG function, DED and facial skin dryness self-perception. This paper established a correlation between dry eye symptoms caused by MG dysfunction and dry skin, which can help general health practitioners consider dry eye as a cause of chronic eye complaints with patients who report dry skin.

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          Most cited references45

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          TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report

          The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition. In the light of new data, neurosensory abnormalities were also included in the definition for the first time. In the classification of DED, recent evidence supports a scheme based on the pathophysiology where aqueous deficient and evaporative dry eye exist as a continuum, such that elements of each are considered in diagnosis and management. Central to the scheme is a positive diagnosis of DED with signs and symptoms, and this is directed towards management to restore homeostasis. The scheme also allows consideration of various related manifestations, such as non-obvious disease involving ocular surface signs without related symptoms, including neurotrophic conditions where dysfunctional sensation exists, and cases where symptoms exist without demonstrable ocular surface signs, including neuropathic pain. This approach is not intended to override clinical assessment and judgment but should prove helpful in guiding clinical management and research.
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            TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

            The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research.
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              TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                METALU
                Metabolites
                Metabolites
                MDPI AG
                2218-1989
                February 2023
                January 20 2023
                : 13
                : 2
                : 157
                Article
                10.3390/metabo13020157
                9964065
                36837776
                5655f275-257f-4d18-abfa-ea1660ce6032
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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