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      Long-Term Voice Outcomes After Robotic Thyroidectomy

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          Most cited references 38

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          Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer: experience with the first 100 patients.

          Various robotic surgical procedures have been performed in recent years, and most reports have proved that the application of robotic technology for surgery is technically feasible and safe. This study aimed to introduce the authors' technique of robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid surgery and to demonstrate its applicability in the surgical management of thyroid cancer. From 4 October 2007 through 14 March 2008, 100 patients with papillary thyroid cancer underwent robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid surgery using a gasless transaxillary approach. This novel robotic surgical approach allowed adequate endoscopic access for thyroid surgeries. All the procedures were completed successfully using the da Vinci S surgical robot system. Four robotic arms were used with this system: a 12-mm telescope and three 8-mm instruments. The three-dimensional magnified visualization obtained by the dual-channel endoscope and the tremor-free instruments controlled by the robotic systems allowed surgeons to perform sharp and precise endoscopic dissections. Ipsilateral central compartment node dissection was used for 84 less-than-total and 16 total thyroidectomies. The mean operation time was 136.5 min (range, 79-267 min). The actual time for thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy (console time) was 60 min (range, 25-157 min). The average number of lymph nodes resected was 5.3 (range, 1-28). No serious complications occurred. Most of the patients could return home within 3 days after surgery. The technique of robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid surgery using a gasless transaxillary approach is a feasible, safe, and effective method for selected patients with thyroid cancer. The authors suggest that application of robotic technology for endoscopic thyroid surgeries could overcome the limitations of conventional endoscopic surgeries in the surgical management of thyroid cancer.
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            Assessment of the morbidity and complications of total thyroidectomy.

            To determine the incidence and predictive factors for complications after total thyroidectomy. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database on total thyroidectomy cases. The National Hospital Data Survey database was examined and all cases of total thyroidectomy performed during 1995 to 1999 were extracted. In addition to demographic information, postoperative complications including hypocalcemia, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, wound complications, and medical morbidities were identified. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine potential predictive factors for postoperative complications. A total of 517 patients were identified (mean age, 48.3 years). The most common indications for total thyroidectomy were thyroid malignancy and goiter (73.9% of cases). Eighty-one patients (15.7%) underwent an associated nodal dissection along with total thyroidectomy, and 16 patients (3.1%) underwent parathyroid reimplantation. The mean length of stay was 2.5 days (95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.8 days). The incidence of postoperative wound hematoma was 1.0%, wound infection was 0.2%, and mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was 6.2%. Younger age was statistically associated with an increased incidence of hypocalcemia (P =.002, t test), whereas sex (P =.48), indication for surgery (P =.32), parathyroid reimplantation (P>.99), and associated neck dissection (P =.21) were not. The mean length of stay was 2.5 days and was unaffected by occurrence of postoperative hypocalcemia. The incidences of unilateral and bilateral vocal cord paralyses were 0.77% and 0.39%, respectively. Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common immediate surgical complication of total thyroidectomy. Other complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, can be expected at rates approximating 1%.
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              Advantages of recurrent laryngeal nerve identification in thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy and the importance of preoperative and postoperative laryngoscopic examination in more than 1000 nerves at risk.

              Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) is a major obstacle in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Therefore, methods that reduce the number of temporary and, especially, permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies are of great interest. One promising way to ensure the integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is to identify the nerve always. The first question raised in the present study was whether RLN preparation reduces the number of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies or whether it introduces additional risks. Second, from former cases we know that the absence of postoperative hoarseness does not exclude RLNP, nor does postoperative hoarseness exclusively imply RLNP. Besides, misdiagnosis is not uncommon. Therefore, preoperative and postoperative laryngoscopic examination was given attention. Patients were investigated 1 to 7 days before and 3 to 7 days after surgery. When an RLNP was identified, patients were followed up in a 2-week rhythm the first few times and every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter until RLNP resolved or it was considered permanent after 2 years. We prospectively investigated 608 surgical patients with 1080 nerves at risk. Because different diseases might have different rates of postoperative RLNP, we analyzed benign thyroid disease (680 nerves at risk), thyroid malignoma (321 nerves at risk), and hyperparathyroidism (79 nerves at risk) separately. Patients undergoing primary surgery (no prior thyroid surgery) and secondary interventions (there were one or more thyroid operations before this intervention) were evaluated separately. We found 3.4%, 7.2%, and 2.5% of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies per nerve in the benign thyroid disease, thyroid malignoma, and hyperparathyroidism groups, respectively. The prevalence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in these groups was 0.3%, 1.2%, and 0%, respectively. Conforming with other studies, the total number of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies (temporary and permanent) was not increased compared with cases with no RLN preparation, whereas the number of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies was markedly reduced. An RLN was always identifiable. Astonishingly, the restitution of an RLNP was up to 2 years in duration; however, most restitutions occurred within the first 6 months. Thirty cases of hoarseness appeared or were intensified after surgery and were not caused by RLNP. Eleven cases of postoperative RLNP had no detectable hoarseness. Besides indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy should be performed in all cases with no evident bilateral normal laryngeal function or normal voice. Otherwise, the incidence of false-positive or false-negative diagnosis of RLNP is likely to be increased.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World Journal of Surgery
                World J Surg
                Springer Nature
                0364-2313
                1432-2323
                January 2016
                October 13 2015
                : 40
                : 1
                : 110-116
                Article
                10.1007/s00268-015-3264-5
                © 2015

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