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      Prevention of Hypertension with or without Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition Precludes Nephrin Loss in the Early Stage of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: Several lines of clinical evidence support the concept that the reduction of blood pressure may be useful in the prevention of diabetic kidney disease. In young diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), prevention of hypertension reduces several early renal abnormalities including albuminuria. However, the contribution of nephrin loss to albuminuria in this early stage of experimental diabetes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether elevation of albuminuria in young diabetic SHR is associated with nephrin loss, and if prevention of hypertension, with or without inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, precludes these abnormalities. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in 4-week-old still normotensive SHR and their genetically normotensive control, Wistar-Kyoto rats. Diabetic SHR were randomized for no treatment, or treatment with captopril, losartan, or triple therapy (hydrochlorothiazide, reserpine and hydralazine) for 20 days. Results: The increase in systolic blood pressure was equally prevented by all treatments. Albuminuria was higher in diabetic SHR and similarly reduced (p < 0.05) by captopril, losartan, and triple therapy. Glomerular expression of nephrin was significantly reduced in diabetic SHR in comparison with non-diabetic controls. The antihypertensive treatment prevented the reduction in glomerular expression of nephrin. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the loss of nephrin is associated with albuminuria in a model of genetic hypertension and diabetes, and that the prevention of development of hypertension restores nephrin and prevents albuminuria. This finding suggests a crucial role of blood pressure in diabetes as determinant of nephrin expression and albuminuria.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study

           A. I. Adler (2000)
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            Effect of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and other antihypertensive drugs on renal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            A consensus has emerged that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) have specific renoprotective effects. Guidelines specify that these are the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypertension in patients with renal disease. We sought to determine to what extent this consensus is supported by the available evidence. Electronic databases were searched up to January, 2005, for randomised trials assessing antihypertensive drugs and progression of renal disease. Effects on primary discrete endpoints (doubling of creatinine and end-stage renal disease) and secondary continuous markers of renal outcomes (creatinine, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate) were calculated with random-effect models. The effects of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in placebo-controlled trials were compared with the effects seen in trials that used an active comparator drug. Comparisons of ACE inhibitors or ARBs with other antihypertensive drugs yielded a relative risk of 0.71 (95% CI 0.49-1.04) for doubling of creatinine and a small benefit on end-stage renal disease (relative risk 0.87, 0.75-0.99). Analyses of the results by study size showed a smaller benefit in large studies. In patients with diabetic nephropathy, no benefit was seen in comparative trials of ACE inhibitors or ARBs on the doubling of creatinine (1.09, 0.55-2.15), end-stage renal disease (0.89, 0.74-1.07), glomerular filtration rate, or creatinine amounts. Placebo-controlled trials of ACE inhibitors or ARBs showed greater benefits than comparative trials on all renal outcomes, but were accompanied by substantial reductions in blood pressure in favour of ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The benefits of ACE inhibitors or ARBs on renal outcomes in placebo-controlled trials probably result from a blood-pressure-lowering effect. In patients with diabetes, additional renoprotective actions of these substances beyond lowering blood pressure remain unproven, and there is uncertainty about the greater renoprotection seen in non-diabetic renal disease.
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              Nephrin expression is reduced in human diabetic nephropathy: evidence for a distinct role for glycated albumin and angiotensin II.

              We studied the distribution of nephrin in renal biopsies from 17 patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome (7 type 1 and 10 type 2 diabetes), 6 patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria (1 type 1 and 5 type 2 diabetes), and 10 normal subjects. Nephrin expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis. We found an extensive reduction of nephrin staining in both type 1 (67 +/- 9%; P < 0.001) and type 2 (65 +/- 10%; P < 0.001) diabetic patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome when compared with control subjects. The pattern of staining shifted from punctate/linear distribution to granular. In patients with microalbuminuria, the staining pattern of nephrin also showed granular distribution and reduction intensity of 69% in the patient with type 1 diabetes and of 62 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) in the patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies on human cultured podocytes demonstrated that glycated albumin and angiotensin II reduced nephrin expression. Glycated albumin inhibited nephrin synthesis through the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end products, whereas angiotensin II acted on cytoskeleton redistribution, inducing the shedding of nephrin. This study indicates that the alteration in nephrin expression is an early event in proteinuric patients with diabetes and suggests that glycated albumin and angiotensin II contribute to nephrin downregulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2007
                October 2007
                20 September 2007
                : 107
                : 2
                : p57-p64
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory of Renal Pathophysiology, Nephrology Unit, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil; bDepartment of Cell Biology, Institute of Nephrology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
                Article
                108642 Nephron Physiol 2007;107:p57–p64
                10.1159/000108642
                17890883
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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