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Stochastic Neural Network Approach for Learning High-Dimensional Free Energy Surfaces

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      Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators

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        All-atom empirical potential for molecular modeling and dynamics studies of proteins.

        New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute interactions. Optimization of the internal parameters used experimental gas-phase geometries, vibrational spectra, and torsional energy surfaces supplemented with ab initio results. The peptide backbone bonding parameters were optimized with respect to data for N-methylacetamide and the alanine dipeptide. The interaction parameters, particularly the atomic charges, were determined by fitting ab initio interaction energies and geometries of complexes between water and model compounds that represented the backbone and the various side chains. In addition, dipole moments, experimental heats and free energies of vaporization, solvation and sublimation, molecular volumes, and crystal pressures and structures were used in the optimization. The resulting protein parameters were tested by applying them to noncyclic tripeptide crystals, cyclic peptide crystals, and the proteins crambin, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and carbonmonoxy myoglobin in vacuo and in crystals. A detailed analysis of the relationship between the alanine dipeptide potential energy surface and calculated protein φ, χ angles was made and used in optimizing the peptide group torsional parameters. The results demonstrate that use of ab initio structural and energetic data by themselves are not sufficient to obtain an adequate backbone representation for peptides and proteins in solution and in crystals. Extensive comparisons between molecular dynamics simulations and experimental data for polypeptides and proteins were performed for both structural and dynamic properties. Energy minimization and dynamics simulations for crystals demonstrate that the latter are needed to obtain meaningful comparisons with experimental crystal structures. The presented parameters, in combination with the previously published CHARMM all-atom parameters for nucleic acids and lipids, provide a consistent set for condensed-phase simulations of a wide variety of molecules of biological interest.
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          Extending the treatment of backbone energetics in protein force fields: limitations of gas-phase quantum mechanics in reproducing protein conformational distributions in molecular dynamics simulations.

          Computational studies of proteins based on empirical force fields represent a powerful tool to obtain structure-function relationships at an atomic level, and are central in current efforts to solve the protein folding problem. The results from studies applying these tools are, however, dependent on the quality of the force fields used. In particular, accurate treatment of the peptide backbone is crucial to achieve representative conformational distributions in simulation studies. To improve the treatment of the peptide backbone, quantum mechanical (QM) and molecular mechanical (MM) calculations were undertaken on the alanine, glycine, and proline dipeptides, and the results from these calculations were combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins in crystal and aqueous environments. QM potential energy maps of the alanine and glycine dipeptides at the LMP2/cc-pVxZ//MP2/6-31G* levels, where x = D, T, and Q, were determined, and are compared to available QM studies on these molecules. The LMP2/cc-pVQZ//MP2/6-31G* energy surfaces for all three dipeptides were then used to improve the MM treatment of the dipeptides. These improvements included additional parameter optimization via Monte Carlo simulated annealing and extension of the potential energy function to contain peptide backbone phi, psi dihedral crossterms or a phi, psi grid-based energy correction term. Simultaneously, MD simulations of up to seven proteins in their crystalline environments were used to validate the force field enhancements. Comparison with QM and crystallographic data showed that an additional optimization of the phi, psi dihedral parameters along with the grid-based energy correction were required to yield significant improvements over the CHARMM22 force field. However, systematic deviations in the treatment of phi and psi in the helical and sheet regions were evident. Accordingly, empirical adjustments were made to the grid-based energy correction for alanine and glycine to account for these systematic differences. These adjustments lead to greater deviations from QM data for the two dipeptides but also yielded improved agreement with experimental crystallographic data. These improvements enhance the quality of the CHARMM force field in treating proteins. This extension of the potential energy function is anticipated to facilitate improved treatment of biological macromolecules via MM approaches in general. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            PRLTAO
            Physical Review Letters
            Phys. Rev. Lett.
            American Physical Society (APS)
            0031-9007
            1079-7114
            October 2017
            October 11 2017
            : 119
            : 15
            10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.150601
            © 2017

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-accepted-manuscript-license

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