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      TCDB: the Transporter Classification Database for membrane transport protein analyses and information

      * , ,

      Nucleic Acids Research

      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB) is a web accessible, curated, relational database containing sequence, classification, structural, functional and evolutionary information about transport systems from a variety of living organisms. TCDB is a curated repository for factual information compiled from >10 000 references, encompassing ∼3000 representative transporters and putative transporters, classified into >400 families. The transporter classification (TC) system is an International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology approved system of nomenclature for transport protein classification. TCDB is freely accessible at http://www.tcdb.org. The web interface provides several different methods for accessing the data, including step-by-step access to hierarchical classification, direct search by sequence or TC number and full-text searching. The functional ontology that underlies the database structure facilitates powerful query searches that yield valuable data in a quick and easy way. The TCDB website also offers several tools specifically designed for analyzing the unique characteristics of transport proteins. TCDB not only provides curated information and a tool for classifying newly identified membrane proteins, but also serves as a genome transporter-annotation tool.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features.

          InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
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            Searching protein sequence libraries: comparison of the sensitivity and selectivity of the Smith-Waterman and FASTA algorithms.

            The sensitivity and selectivity of the FASTA and the Smith-Waterman protein sequence comparison algorithms were evaluated using the superfamily classification provided in the National Biomedical Research Foundation/Protein Identification Resource (PIR) protein sequence database. Sequences from each of the 34 superfamilies in the PIR database with 20 or more members were compared against the protein sequence database. The similarity scores of the related and unrelated sequences were determined using either the FASTA program or the Smith-Waterman local similarity algorithm. These two sets of similarity scores were used to evaluate the ability of the two comparison algorithms to identify distantly related protein sequences. The FASTA program using the ktup = 2 sensitivity setting performed as well as the Smith-Waterman algorithm for 19 of the 34 superfamilies. Increasing the sensitivity by setting ktup = 1 allowed FASTA to perform as well as Smith-Waterman on an additional 7 superfamilies. The rigorous Smith-Waterman method performed better than FASTA with ktup = 1 on 8 superfamilies, including the globins, immunoglobulin variable regions, calmodulins, and plastocyanins. Several strategies for improving the sensitivity of FASTA were examined. The greatest improvement in sensitivity was achieved by optimizing a band around the best initial region found for every library sequence. For every superfamily except the globins and immunoglobulin variable regions, this strategy was as sensitive as a full Smith-Waterman. For some sequences, additional sensitivity was achieved by including conserved but nonidentical residues in the lookup table used to identify the initial region.
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              Structure and mechanism of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli.

              The major facilitator superfamily represents the largest group of secondary membrane transporters in the cell. Here we report the 3.3 angstrom resolution structure of a member of this superfamily, GlpT, which transports glycerol-3-phosphate into the cytoplasm and inorganic phosphate into the periplasm. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal halves of the protein exhibit a pseudo two-fold symmetry. Closed off to the periplasm, a centrally located substrate-translocation pore contains two arginines at its closed end, which comprise the substrate-binding site. Upon substrate binding, the protein adopts a more compact conformation. We propose that GlpT operates by a single-binding site, alternating-access mechanism through a rocker-switch type of movement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                01 January 2006
                01 January 2006
                28 December 2005
                : 34
                : Database issue
                : D181-D186
                Affiliations
                Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel. +1 858 534 4084; Fax: +1 858 534 7108; Email: msaier@ 123456ucsd.edu
                Article
                10.1093/nar/gkj001
                1334385
                16381841
                © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

                The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oxfordjournals.org

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                Genetics

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