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      Host Plant Use by the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) on Woody Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

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          Abstract

          The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive plant-feeding insect native to eastern Asia. This herbivore is highly polyphagous, feeding on and damaging diverse plants, including field crops, vegetables, tree fruits, and ornamentals. Woody ornamental plants provide early- and late-season resources for adults emerging from and returning to overwintering sites, as well as feeding and breeding sites for H. halys throughout the growing season. In this study, we quantify the use of diverse plants by H. halys in two commercial nurseries in Maryland, recording data on the abundance of egg masses, early and late instar nymphs, and adults over a three-year study period. Our specific goals were to provide a quantitative comparison of the use of diverse plant species and cultivated varieties, identify non-hosts that could be used to create landscapes refractory to H. halys, and determine whether the use of plants varied across life stages of H. halys or the taxonomic status of plants. We found broad use of diverse plants in this study, identifying 88 host plants used by all life stages of H. halys. We also highlight the 43 plant taxa that did not support any life stage of H. halys and are thus classified as non-hosts. Interestingly, some of these plants were congeners of highly-used plants, underscoring high intrageneric and intraspecific variation in the use of plants by this polyphagous herbivore. We discuss how the selective planting of non-hosts, especially gymnosperms, may aid in reducing the agricultural and nuisance pest status of this invasive insect.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.

          Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was first detected in the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in agriculture and created major nuisance problems for home and business owners, especially in the mid-Atlantic region. Basic and applied questions on H. halys have been addressed in its native range in Asia since the mid-1900s and the research outcomes have been published in at least 216 articles from China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. In Asia, H. halys is described as an occasional or outbreak pest of a number of crops such as apple, pear, persimmon, and soybeans. This species is considered a nuisance pest as well, particularly in Japan. This review summarizes 100 articles primarily translated from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to English. The content of this review focuses on the biology, ecology, and management of H. halys in Asia, with specific emphasis on nomenclature, life history, host range, damage, economic importance, sampling and monitoring tools, and management strategies. This information from the native range of H. halys provides greater context and understanding of its biology, ecology, and management in North America.
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            Occurrence of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Wild Hosts in Nonmanaged Woodlands and Soybean Fields in North Carolina and Virginia.

            Nonmanaged plants occurring along forest edges and in suburban settings were sampled for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA) over the course of three growing seasons. Commercial soybeans (Glycine max), an attractive cultivated host, were also sampled in 2014 in NC and in VA from 2010-2014. Very few H. halys were found on nonmanaged plants or soybean fields in the coastal plain region of either state, but substantial populations were recorded in the piedmont and mountain regions. From 2011 to 2013, H. halys comprised from 51 to 97% of all stink bug species observed on nonmanaged plants in the piedmont and mountain regions. In VA, the distribution expanded from detection in 12 counties in 2010 to 53 counties in 2014, with economically damaging levels occurring in the piedmont region. During these studies, H. halys were observed to complete one and a partial second generation per year in western NC and southwestern VA, similar to that previously observed in regions farther north. Several plants were identified as preferred hosts, with tree of heaven, catalpa, yellowwood, paulownia, cherry, walnut, redbud, and grape having consistently high numbers of H. halys. Knowing that these plants are preferred by H. halys during certain stages of the insects' development will aid in the search for H. halys in new areas, as well as serve as one predictor of the likelihood of a certain area to attract and sustain large H. halys populations.
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              Adjacent Habitat Influence on Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Densities and the Associated Damage at Field Corn and Soybean Edges

              The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                23 February 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
                United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: EJB PDV HMM MJR PMS. Performed the experiments: EJB HMM MJR PMS. Analyzed the data: EJB PDV HMM MJR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PDV HMM. Wrote the paper: EJB PDV HMM MJR PMS.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-44673
                10.1371/journal.pone.0149975
                4764356
                26906399
                © 2016 Bergmann et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture—National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Specialty Crop Research Initiative; Award 2011-51181-30937 ( http://nifa.usda.gov/funding-opportunity/specialty-crop-research-initiative-scri) to HMM, MJR, and PMS, and the United States Department of Agriculture—National Institute of Food and Agriculture, McIntire Stennis Capacity Grant; MD-ENTM-04168757 ( http://nifa.usda.gov/program/mcintire-stennis-capacity-grant) to MJR.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Flowering Plants
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Gymnosperms
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Metamorphosis
                Nymphs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Trees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Fruits
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Fruits
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Shrubs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Legumes
                Fabaceae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Plant Ecology
                Plant-Animal Interactions
                Plant-Herbivore Interactions
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Plant Ecology
                Plant-Animal Interactions
                Plant-Herbivore Interactions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Ecology
                Plant-Animal Interactions
                Plant-Herbivore Interactions
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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