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      Immune response effects of diverse vaccine antigen attachment ways based on the self-made nanoemulsion adjuvant in systemic MRSA infection†

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          Abstract

          Nanoemulsion adjuvants-based vaccines have potent induced immune responses against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. However, the efficacies and immune responses of different antigen-attaching ways on self-made nanoemulsion adjuvants remain unknown. In this study, we designed three formulations of nanoemulsion adjuvants (encapsulation, mixture, and combination) to explore their immune response-enhancing effects and their underlying mechanism in a systemic infection model of MRSA. Our results showed that the three nanoemulsion-attachment ways formulated with a fusion antigen of MRSA (Hla H35LIsdB 348–465) all improved humoral and cellular immune responses. When compared with the mixture and combination formulations, the nanoemulsion-encapsulation group effectively promoted the antigen uptake of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, the activation of DC in draining lymph nodes and the delayed release of antigen at injection sites in vivo. Moreover, the encapsulation group induced a more ideal protective efficacy in a MRSA sepsis model by inducing more potent antibody responses and a Th1/Th17 biased CD4 + T cell response when compared with the other two attachment ways. Our findings suggested that the encapsulated formulation of vaccine with nanoemulsion adjuvant is an effective attachment way to provide protective immunity against MRSA infection.

          Abstract

          Encapsulated formulation of nanoemulsion vaccine induced more potent immune responses against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, compared with combination and mixture attachment ways.

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          Cancer Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles for Anticancer Vaccination and Drug Delivery

          Cell-derived nanoparticles have been garnering increased attention due to their ability to mimic many of the natural properties displayed by their source cells. This top-down engineering approach can be applied toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies owing to the unique interactions enabled through the retention of complex antigenic information. Herein, we report on the biological functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with a layer of membrane coating derived from cancer cells. The resulting core–shell nanostructures, which carry the full array of cancer cell membrane antigens, offer a robust platform with applicability toward multiple modes of anticancer therapy. We demonstrate that by coupling the particles with an immunological adjuvant, the resulting formulation can be used to promote a tumor-specific immune response for use in vaccine applications. Moreover, we show that by taking advantage of the inherent homotypic binding phenomenon frequently observed among tumor cells the membrane functionalization allows for a unique cancer targeting strategy that can be utilized for drug delivery applications.
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            Nanoparticle vaccines.

            Nanotechnology increasingly plays a significant role in vaccine development. As vaccine development orientates toward less immunogenic "minimalist" compositions, formulations that boost antigen effectiveness are increasingly needed. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery and slow release. A number of nanoparticle vaccines varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use and the number of candidates is increasing. However, challenges remain due to a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles, which can operate as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. This review provides a broad overview of recent advances in prophylactic nanovaccinology. Types of nanoparticles used are outlined and their interaction with immune cells and the biosystem are discussed. Increased knowledge and fundamental understanding of nanoparticle mechanism of action in both immunostimulatory and delivery modes, and better understanding of in vivo biodistribution and fate, are urgently required, and will accelerate the rational design of nanoparticle-containing vaccines. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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              Vaccine delivery: a matter of size, geometry, kinetics and molecular patterns.

              Researchers working on the development of vaccines face an inherent dilemma: to maximize immunogenicity without compromising safety and tolerability. Early vaccines often induced long-lived protective immune responses, but tolerability was a major problem. Newer vaccines have very few side effects but can be of limited immunogenicity. One way to tackle this problem is to design vaccines that have all the properties of pathogens with the exception of causing disease. Key features of pathogens that can be mimicked by vaccine delivery systems are their size, shape and surface molecule organization. In addition, pathogen-associated molecular patterns can be used to induce innate immune responses that promote adaptive immunity. In this Review, we discuss the approaches currently being used to optimize the delivery of antigens and enhance vaccine efficacy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                RSC Adv
                RSC Adv
                RA
                RSCACL
                RSC Advances
                The Royal Society of Chemistry
                2046-2069
                14 March 2018
                13 March 2018
                14 March 2018
                : 8
                : 19
                : 10425-10436
                Affiliations
                [a] National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA 30 Sha Ping Ba Gaotanyan Street Chongqing 400038 P. R. China sunhongwu2001@ 123456163.com +86-023-68752377 +86-023-68752377
                Article
                c8ra00154e
                10.1039/c8ra00154e
                9078882
                35540467
                5677fe8a-a5b6-46b9-ae98-5377dd161a7a
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry
                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 31370932
                Award ID: 31600745
                Award ID: 31670938
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Custom metadata
                Paginated Article

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