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      Chromosomal and DNA barcode analysis of the Polyommatus ( Agrodiaetus) damone (Eversmann, 1841) species complex (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

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          The Polyommatus ( Agrodiaetus) damone (Eversmann, 1841) species complex comprises from 5 to 8 species distributed in southeastern Europe and southern Siberia. Here we used chromosomal and DNA-barcode markers in order to test the taxonomic hypotheses previously suggested for this complex. We revealed that all taxa within this group demonstrate chromosomal stasis and share the same or very similar haploid chromosome number (n = 66 or n = 67). This finding is unexpected since the karyotypes are known to be very diverse and species-specific within the other taxa of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822. Analysis of the mitochondrial gene COI revealed six diverged clusters of individuals within the complex. Each cluster has a specific geographic distribution and is characterized by distinct morphological features in the wing pattern. The clusters mostly (but not always) correlate with traditionally recognized species. As a result of our study, we describe a new subspecies P. ( A.) iphigenides zarmitanus subsp. nov. from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and show that the taxon originally described as Lycaena kindermanni var. melania Staudinger, 1886 represents a subspecies P. ( A.) iphigenides melanius (Staudinger, 1886). Polyommatus ( A.) samusi Korb, 2017 ( syn. nov.) and P. ( A.) melanius komarovi Korb, 2017 ( syn. nov.) are considered here as junior subjective synonyms of P. ( A.) iphigenides iphigenides (Staudinger, 1886).

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          Most cited references 42

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          MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

          Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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            Posterior Summarization in Bayesian Phylogenetics Using Tracer 1.7

            Abstract Bayesian inference of phylogeny using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) plays a central role in understanding evolutionary history from molecular sequence data. Visualizing and analyzing the MCMC-generated samples from the posterior distribution is a key step in any non-trivial Bayesian inference. We present the software package Tracer (version 1.7) for visualizing and analyzing the MCMC trace files generated through Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Tracer provides kernel density estimation, multivariate visualization, demographic trajectory reconstruction, conditional posterior distribution summary, and more. Tracer is open-source and available at http://beast.community/tracer.
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              An inexpensive, automation-friendly protocol for recovering high-quality DNA


                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                04 January 2021
                : 15
                : 1
                : 1-22
                [1 ] Department of Karyosystematics, Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab. 1, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg Russia
                [2 ] Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskiye Gory 1/11, Moscow119991, Russia Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Vladimir A. Lukhtanov ( lukhtanov@ 123456mail.ru )

                Academic editor: N. Golub

                Vladimir A. Lukhtanov, Alexander V. Dantchenko

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: Russian Science Foundation 501100006769 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100006769
                Research Article


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