The Polyommatus ( Agrodiaetus) damone (Eversmann, 1841) species complex comprises from 5 to 8 species distributed in southeastern Europe and southern Siberia. Here we used chromosomal and DNA-barcode markers in order to test the taxonomic hypotheses previously suggested for this complex. We revealed that all taxa within this group demonstrate chromosomal stasis and share the same or very similar haploid chromosome number (n = 66 or n = 67). This finding is unexpected since the karyotypes are known to be very diverse and species-specific within the other taxa of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822. Analysis of the mitochondrial gene COI revealed six diverged clusters of individuals within the complex. Each cluster has a specific geographic distribution and is characterized by distinct morphological features in the wing pattern. The clusters mostly (but not always) correlate with traditionally recognized species. As a result of our study, we describe a new subspecies P. ( A.) iphigenides zarmitanus subsp. nov. from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and show that the taxon originally described as Lycaena kindermanni var. melania Staudinger, 1886 represents a subspecies P. ( A.) iphigenides melanius (Staudinger, 1886). Polyommatus ( A.) samusi Korb, 2017 ( syn. nov.) and P. ( A.) melanius komarovi Korb, 2017 ( syn. nov.) are considered here as junior subjective synonyms of P. ( A.) iphigenides iphigenides (Staudinger, 1886).