Objective To analyze the expression of CEACAM1 in serum of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the correlation and clinical significance between the expression of CEACAM1 and pathological parameters of NSCLC tissue. Methods A total of 100 patients with NSCLC who underwent tumor resection were screened. Another 100 healthy patients in physical examination department were selected as control group. Venous blood and cancer tissue samples were collected. The expression of CEACAM1, TGF- β , VEGF-A, and IL-8 was detected. Results The results of various indicators in the lung cancer group were much higher than those in the healthy group; CEACAM1 was significantly positively correlated with TGF- β expression. The later the clinical stage and the higher the degree of differentiation of cancer tissue specimens, the more the expression of CEACAM1 in serum samples. Conclusions The expression level of CEACAM1 in the serum of NSCLC patients is strongly correlated with TGF- β , VEGF-A, and IL-8, indicating that serum CEACAM1 and TGF- β levels can predict the occurrence, progression, and prognosis of lung cancer and provide a target for future targeted therapy of lung cancer.