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      Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations.

          Methods

          Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties.

          Results

          All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies.

          Conclusion

          The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils.

           D Kalemba,  A Kunicka (2003)
          In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.
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            A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients.

            We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study of adults (n=1447) and children (n=144) with candidemia at tertiary care centers in the United States in parallel with a candidemia treatment trial that included nonneutropenic adults. Candida albicans was the most common bloodstream isolate recovered from adults and children (45% vs. 49%) and was associated with high mortality (47% among adults vs. 29% among children). Three-month survival was better among children than among adults (76% vs. 54%; P<.001). Most children received amphotericin B as initial therapy, whereas most adults received fluconazole. In adults, Candida parapsilosis fungemia was associated with lower mortality than was non-parapsilosis candidemia (24% vs. 46%; P<.001). Mortality was similar among subjects with Candida glabrata or non-glabrata candidemia; mortality was also similar among subjects with C. glabrata candidemia who received fluconazole rather than other antifungal therapy. Subjects in the observational cohort had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than did participants in the clinical trial (18.6 vs. 16.1), which suggests that the former subjects are more often excluded from therapeutic trials.
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              Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991-2000.

              Candida species are among the most common bloodstream pathogens in the United States, where the emergence of azole-resistant Candida glabrata and Candida krusei are major concerns. Recent comprehensive longitudinal data from Europe are lacking. We conducted a nationwide survey of candidemia during 1991-2000 in 17 university and university-affiliated hospitals representing 79% of all tertiary care hospital beds in Switzerland. The number of transplantations and bloodstream infections increased significantly (P<.001). A total of 1137 episodes of candidemia were observed: Candida species ranked seventh among etiologic agents (2.9% of all bloodstream isolates). The incidence of candidemia was stable over a 10-year period. C. albicans remained the predominant Candida species recovered (66%), followed by C. glabrata (15%). Candida tropicalis emerged (9%), the incidence of Candida parapsilosis decreased (1%), and recovery of C. krusei remained rare (2%). Fluconazole consumption increased significantly (P<.001). Despite increasing high-risk activities, the incidence of candidemia remained unchanged, and no shift to resistant species occurred.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                29 June 2015
                : 9
                : 3349-3359
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gihan S Labib, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Building 11, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia, Tel +965 0302 7224, Email jilabib@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-9-3349
                10.2147/DDDT.S85356
                4492630
                © 2015 Labib and Aldawsari. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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