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      Consumption of whole grains in French children, adolescents and adults

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          Abstract

          The consumption of whole grain foods is associated with many nutritional, health and weight control benefits. The present study assessed whole grain intake in France on the basis of a 7 d dietary survey in a representative sample of children, adolescents and adults (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2010 survey). Special care was taken to identify and assess the intake of all whole grains. All foods consumed were considered, with no lower limit on whole grain content. For the majority of foods, details regarding the whole grain contents were obtained from brand information and quantitative nutrient declarations on food labels. Over half of the respondents reported never consuming any whole grain. In participants who did, consumption levels were very low (about 9·1 g/d in children and 14·4 g/d in adults). The main food sources of whole grains were breakfast cereals in children and adolescents and bread in adults. Consumers of whole grains had higher daily intakes of fibre and several vitamins and minerals than non-consumers. In adults but not in children, the OR for overweight/obesity decreased significantly as the level of whole grain consumption increased. Although a majority of French consumers comply with the national recommendation to consume a starchy food with each meal, they do so with minimal consumption of whole grain foods.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.

          To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years of age. Body mass index (weight/height(2)). For each of the surveys, centile curves were drawn that at age 18 years passed through the widely used cut off points of 25 and 30 kg/m(2) for adult overweight and obesity. The resulting curves were averaged to provide age and sex specific cut off points from 2-18 years. The proposed cut off points, which are less arbitrary and more internationally based than current alternatives, should help to provide internationally comparable prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in children.
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            Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work.

            After reviewing the literature on basal metabolism, this paper discusses and reviews recent attempts to predict BMR from age, sex and anthropometric measurements. Criticism is made of the scientific and statistical integrity of a widely used table of standard metabolic rates for weight. The statistical screening of data from the literature of the past 50 years is described and equations computed from these screened data are presented. In these equations, BMR is predicted simply from weight or from weight and height with sex and age taken into account. Information is given on error, and tables estimating error for predictions on new data both for individuals and for means of groups of subjects are included. A table of BMRs for weights from 3 to 84 kg for males and females separately is also included. Cross-validation techniques are used to estimate possible threats to validity from various sources including, for example, different procedures of early workers. It was found that in the data available subjects from developing countries not only were smaller and had lower metabolic rates (as was expected) but also had lower rates per unit body weight than European or North American subjects. It is argued that at an individual level the error of prediction must be high since the global operationalisation of BMR confounds separate effects known to participate in complex relations with sex, age and anthropometric indices. The work reported is aimed at meeting a practical need for equations which are simple to apply. However, it was found that little was gained by the use of more complex equations, although they remain of scientific interest.
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              Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain.

              Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21 randomized-controlled trials (RCT) between 1966 and February 2012 by searching the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Elsevier Medical Database, and PubMed. Study characteristics, whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes, and risk estimates were extracted using a standardized protocol. Using random effects models, we found that compared with never/rare consumers of whole grains, those consuming 48-80 g whole grain/d (3-5 serving/d) had an ~26% lower risk of T2D [RR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.80)], ~21% lower risk of CVD [RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.85)], and consistently less weight gain during 8-13 y (1.27 vs 1.64 kg; P = 0.001). Among RCT, weighted mean differences in post-intervention circulating concentrations of fasting glucose and total and LDL-cholesterol comparing whole-grain intervention groups with controls indicated significantly lower concentrations after whole-grain interventions [differences in fasting glucose: -0.93 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.65, -0.21), total cholesterol: -0.83 mmol/L (-1.23, -0.42); and LDL-cholesterol: -0.82 mmol/L (-1.31, -0.33)]. [corrected] Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence to support beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on vascular disease prevention. Potential mechanisms responsible for whole grains' effects on metabolic intermediates require further investigation in large intervention trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Nutr
                Br. J. Nutr
                BJN
                The British Journal of Nutrition
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                0007-1145
                1475-2662
                28 November 2014
                10 October 2014
                : 112
                : 10
                : 1674-1684
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Nutritional Epidemiology Research Unit, UMR U557 INSERM, U1125 INRA, CNAM, Paris 13 University , CRNH-IdF, Bobigny, France
                [ 2 ]CREDOC (Centre de Recherche pour l'Etude et l'Observation des Conditions de Vie) , 142 rue du Chevaleret, Paris, France
                [ 3 ]Cereal Partners Worldwide , Lausanne, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: F. Bellisle, email f.bellisle@ 123456uren.smbh.univ-paris13.fr
                S0007114514002670 00267
                10.1017/S0007114514002670
                4234471
                25300424
                © The Authors 2014

                This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Full Papers
                Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                french population, whole grains, dietary surveys

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