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      Sensory Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Home and Classroom Contexts

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          Abstract

          Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often show impairments in sensory processing (SP) and higher functions. The main objective of this study was to compare SP, praxis and social participation (SOC) in four groups of children: ASD Group ( n = 21), ADHD Group ( n = 21), ASD+ADHD Group ( n = 21), and Comparison Group ( n = 27). Participants were the parents and teachers of these children who were 5–8 years old ( M = 6.32). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate the sensory profile, praxis and SOC of the children in both the home and classroom contexts. In the home context, the most affected was the ASD+ADHD group. The ADHD group obtained higher scores than the ASD group on the Body Awareness (BOD) subscale, indicating a higher level of dysfunction. The ASD group, however, did not obtain higher scores than the ADHD group on any subscale. In the classroom context, the most affected were the two ASD groups: the ASD+ADHD group obtained higher scores than the ADHD group on the Hearing (HEA) and Social Participation (SOC) subscales, and the ASD group obtained higher scores than the ADHD group on the SOC subscale. Regarding sensory modalities, difficulties in proprioception seem to be more characteristic to the ADHD condition. As for higher-level functioning, social difficulties seem to be more characteristic to the ASD condition. Differences between the two contexts were only found in the ASD group, which could be related to contextual hyperselectivity, an inherent autistic feature. Despite possible individual differences, specific intervention programs should be developed to improve the sensory challenges faced by children with different diagnoses.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: a critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study.

          Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies. Limitations of previous work include inconsistent measurement of informant discrepancies and, perhaps most importantly, the absence of a theoretical framework to guide research. In this article, the authors present a theoretical framework (the Attribution Bias Context Model) to guide research and theory examining informant discrepancies in the clinic setting. Needed directions for future research and theory include theoretically driven attention to conceptualizing informant discrepancies across informant pairs (e.g., parent-teacher, mother-father, parent-child, teacher-child) as well as developing experimental approaches to decrease informant discrepancies in the clinic setting. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
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            Describing the sensory abnormalities of children and adults with autism.

            Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had sensory symptoms in multiple sensory domains. Group differences between children with autism and clinical comparison children were found in the total number of symptoms and in specific domains of smell/taste and vision. Study 2 confirmed that sensory abnormalities are pervasive and multimodal and persistent across age and ability in children and adults with autism. Age and IQ level affects some sensory symptoms however. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
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              Sensory processing in autism: a review of neurophysiologic findings.

              Atypical sensory-based behaviors are a ubiquitous feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this article, we review the neural underpinnings of sensory processing in autism by reviewing the literature on neurophysiological responses to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli in autistic individuals. We review studies of unimodal sensory processing and multisensory integration that use a variety of neuroimaging techniques, including electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional MRI. We then explore the impact of covert and overt attention on sensory processing. With additional characterization, neurophysiologic profiles of sensory processing in ASD may serve as valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions for autism and reveal potential strategies and target brain regions for therapeutic interventions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : http://loop.frontiersin.org/people/261264/overview
                URI : http://loop.frontiersin.org/people/206622/overview
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                11 October 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1Teaching and Scholastic Organization Department, Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences, University of Valencia , Valencia, Spain
                2Basic Psychology Department, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia , Valencia, Spain
                3Developmental and Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia , Valencia, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Katie Alcock, Lancaster University, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Teresa Tavassoli, University College London, United Kingdom; Steven STagg, Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Pilar Sanz-Cervera pilar.sanz-cervera@ 123456uv.es

                This article was submitted to Developmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01772
                5641858
                Copyright © 2017 Sanz-Cervera, Pastor-Cerezuela, González-Sala, Tárraga-Mínguez and Fernández-Andrés.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 65, Pages: 12, Words: 10498
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad 10.13039/501100003329
                Award ID: EDU-2016-78867R
                Funded by: Generalitat Valenciana 10.13039/501100003359
                Award ID: ACIF/2015/218
                Funded by: Universitat de València 10.13039/501100003508
                Award ID: UV-INV-AE16-484594
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

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