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      Effect of Oral Hydration on Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury among Patients after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention


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          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral hydration volume to weight ratio (OHV/W) on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 754 patients with STEMI undergoing PCI were selected. Each patient was encouraged to drink as much water as possible 24 h after PCI. Total volume intake was recorded for all patients. The ratio of OHV/W was calculated. The occurrence of CI-AKI was defined as ≥0.5 mg/dL absolute or ≥25% relative increase in serum creatinine within 48–72 h following PCI. Logistic regression analysis and generalized additive model were performed to evaluate the relationship between OHV/W and CI-AKI. Results: There was a nonlinear relationship between OHV/W and CI-AKI with an inflection point of 15.69 mL/kg. On the right side of the inflection point (OHV/W ≥15.69 mL/kg), a negative relationship was detected between OHV/W and CI-AKI (HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82∼0.98, p = 0.0126). However, no relationship was observed between OHV/W and CI-AKI on the left of inflection point (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.95∼1.49, p = 0.1302). Subgroup analysis showed that significant interactions were observed only for gender difference ( p for interaction = 0.0155), male patients had a significantly lower risk of CI-AKI (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75∼0.93, p = 0.0012). Conclusion: OHV/W ≥15.6 mL/kg for 24 h post-procedure may be an effective preventive strategy of CI-AKI. In addition, male patients may particularly benefit from OHV to prevent CI-AKI.

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          Most cited references29

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          2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.

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            Acute renal failure after coronary intervention: incidence, risk factors, and relationship to mortality.

            This study set out to define the incidence, predictors, and mortality related to acute renal failure (ARF) and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARFD) after coronary intervention. Derivation-validation set methods were used in 1,826 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention with evaluation of baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl), diabetic status, contrast exposure, postprocedure creatinine, ARF, ARFD, in-hospital mortality, and long-term survival (derivation set). Multiple logistic regression was used to derive the prior probability of ARFD in a second set of 1,869 consecutive patients (validation set). The incidence of ARF and ARFD was 144.6/1,000 and 7.7/1,000 cases respectively. The cutoff dose of contrast below which there was no ARFD was 100 mL. No patient with a CrCl > 47 mL/min developed ARFD. These thresholds were confirmed in the validation set. Multivariate analysis found CrCl [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 0.89, P <0.00001], diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95% CI 1.40 to 21.32, P = 0.01), and contrast dose (OR = 1.008, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.013, P = 0.01) to be independent predictors of ARFD. Patients in the validation set who underwent dialysis had a predicted prior probability of ARFD of between 0.07 and 0.73. The in-hospital mortality for those who developed ARFD was 35.7% and the 2-year survival was 18.8%. The occurrence of ARFD after coronary intervention is rare (<1%) but is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. Individual patient risk can be estimated from calculated CrCl, diabetic status, and expected contrast dose prior to a proposed coronary intervention.
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              Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

              The aim of this research was to assess the incidence, clinical predictors, and outcome of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Contrast-induced nephropathy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after PCI. Patients undergoing primary PCI may be at higher risk of CIN because of hemodynamic instability and unfeasibility of adequate prophylaxis. In 208 consecutive AMI patients undergoing primary PCI, we measured serum creatinine concentration (Cr) at baseline and each day for the following three days. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as a rise in Cr >0.5 mg/dl. Overall, CIN occurred in 40 (19%) patients. Of the 160 patients with baseline Cr clearance >/=60 ml/min, only 21 (13%) developed CIN, whereas it occurred in 19 (40%) of those with Cr clearance 75 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98 to 14.05; p = 0.0009), anterior infarction (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.88 to 5.34; p = 0.09), time-to-reperfusion >6 h (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.16; p = 0.04), contrast agent volume >300 ml (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.68; p = 0.02) and use of intraaortic balloon (OR 15.51, 95% CI 4.65 to 51.64; p < 0.0001) were independent correlates of CIN. Patients developing CIN had longer hospital stay (13 +/- 7 days vs. 8 +/- 3 days; p < 0.001), more complicated clinical course, and significantly higher mortality rate (31% vs. 0.6%; p < 0.001). Contrast-induced nephropathy frequently complicates primary PCI, even in patients with normal renal function. It is associated with higher in-hospital complication rate and mortality. Thus, preventive strategies are needed, particularly in high-risk patients.

                Author and article information

                Cardiorenal Med
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                December 2021
                25 November 2021
                : 11
                : 5-6
                : 243-251
                [_a] aDepartment of Scientific Research, Guangdong Province Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Foshan, China
                [_b] bAffiliated Guangdong Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Foshan, China
                [_c] cDepartment of Cardiology, Guangdong Province Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Foshan, China
                [_d] dDepartment of Nephrology, Guangdong Province Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Foshan, China
                Author notes
                *Biying Lin, fsbiyinglin@sina.com
                Author information
                520088 Cardiorenal Med 2021;11:243–251
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 11 August 2021
                : 28 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Pages: 9
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Oral hydration,Contrast-induced acute kidney injury,ST-elevation myocardial infarction


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