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      Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Disease: Recent Developments and Future Applications

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          Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the ability to non-invasively assess parenchymal and vascular renal disease. Indications for renal MRI include the evaluation of renal masses, urinary obstruction and infection, renal vasculature, and the health of transplant kidneys. The potential of MR angiography to replace invasive conventional x-ray angiography has been recognized for many years. Recent developments in MRI resulting from fast MR systems with faster gradients, new surface coil designs and the latest sequence developments coupled with innovative contrast agent administration strategies have prompted substantial progress of MRI in the diagnosis of renal disease. The goal of this article is to present the current state of MRI in diagnosing renal disease, with an emphasis on the latest developments in the evaluation of renal vascular disease.

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          Most cited references 17

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          SENSE: Sensitivity encoding for fast MRI

          New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for considerably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity generally has an encoding effect complementary to Fourier preparation by linear field gradients. Thus, by using multiple receiver coils in parallel scan time in Fourier imaging can be considerably reduced. The problem of image reconstruction from sensitivity encoded data is formulated in a general fashion and solved for arbitrary coil configurations and k-space sampling patterns. Special attention is given to the currently most practical case, namely, sampling a common Cartesian grid with reduced density. For this case the feasibility of the proposed methods was verified both in vitro and in vivo. Scan time was reduced to one-half using a two-coil array in brain imaging. With an array of five coils double-oblique heart images were obtained in one-third of conventional scan time. Magn Reson Med 42:952-962, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis

             S. Bruno (2004)
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              High-resolution MR-imaging of the liver with T2-weighted sequences using integrated parallel imaging: comparison of prospective motion correction and respiratory triggering.

              To compare high-resolution T2-weighted images of the liver with and without integrated parallel acquisition techniques (iPAT) using either breath-hold sequences in combination with prospective acquisition motion correction (PACE) or respiratory triggering. Ten volunteers and 10 patients underwent each four different high-resolution fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted sequences with 5 mm slice thickness and a full 320 matrix: a multi-breath-hold FSE sequence with and without iPAT and PACE and a respiratory-triggered FSE sequence with and without iPAT. Image quality was rated with a five-point scale by two independent readers. Signal intensity measurements were performed on a water phantom. The sequences with iPAT required a substantially shorter acquisition time without loss of image quality. Overall image quality was rated equal for all sequences by both readers. Image time for nine slices with iPAT was 13 seconds (19 seconds without iPAT) with multi-breath-hold and on average 4:00 minutes (7:02 minutes without iPAT) with respiratory triggering. Imaging with the PACE technique resulted in more correct positioning of the image stacks. T2-weighted fast imaging with iPAT is feasible and results in high-quality images within a short acquisition time. Overall image quality is not negatively affected by iPAT. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                March 2006
                10 March 2006
                : 103
                : 2
                : c37-c44
                aDepartment of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany; bDepartment of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif., USA; cDepartment of Nephrology, University Hospital, Essen, Germany
                90607 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;103:c37–c44
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 39, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Radiologic Imaging


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