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      The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers

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          Abstract

          Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1 623 713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe.

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          Most cited references 30

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          QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.

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            Greengenes, a chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbench compatible with ARB.

            A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria.
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              PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY. I. PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY.

               H Löe,  J SILNESS (1963)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ISME J
                ISME J
                The ISME Journal
                Nature Publishing Group
                1751-7362
                1751-7370
                January 2015
                11 July 2014
                1 January 2015
                : 9
                : 1
                : 268-272
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
                [2 ]Division of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences and Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
                [3 ]Division of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
                [4 ]Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Division of Periodontology, The Ohio State University , 4111 Postle Hall, 305, W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. E-mail: kumar.83@ 123456osu.edu
                ismej2014114
                10.1038/ismej.2014.114
                4274424
                25012901
                Copyright © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

                Categories
                Short Communication

                Microbiology & Virology

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