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The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers

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      Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1 623 713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe.

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      Most cited references 30

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      QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.

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        Greengenes, a chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbench compatible with ARB.

        A 16S rRNA gene database ( addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria.
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           H Löe,  J SILNESS (1963)

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
            [2 ]Division of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences and Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
            [3 ]Division of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
            [4 ]Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, USA
            Author notes
            [* ]Division of Periodontology, The Ohio State University , 4111 Postle Hall, 305, W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. E-mail: kumar.83@
            ISME J
            ISME J
            The ISME Journal
            Nature Publishing Group
            January 2015
            11 July 2014
            1 January 2015
            : 9
            : 1
            : 268-272
            25012901 4274424 ismej2014114 10.1038/ismej.2014.114
            Copyright © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology

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            Short Communication

            Microbiology & Virology


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