Plant viral diseases are the foremost threat to sustainable agriculture, leading to several billion dollars in losses every year. Many viruses infecting several crops have been described in the literature; however, new infectious viruses are emerging frequently through outbreaks. For the effective treatment and prevention of viral diseases, there is great demand for new techniques that can provide accurate identification on the causative agents. With the advancements in biochemical and molecular biology techniques, several diagnostic methods with improved sensitivity and specificity for the detection of prevalent and/or unknown plant viruses are being continuously developed. Currently, serological and nucleic acid methods are the most widely used for plant viral diagnosis. Nucleic acid-based techniques that amplify target DNA/RNA have been evolved with many variants. However, there is growing interest in developing techniques that can be based in real-time and thus facilitate in-field diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based innovative methods have shown great potential to detect multiple viruses simultaneously; however, such techniques are in the preliminary stages in plant viral disease diagnostics. This review discusses the recent progress in the use of NGS-based techniques for the detection, diagnosis, and identification of plant viral diseases. New portable devices and technologies that could provide real-time analyses in a relatively short period of time are prime important for in-field diagnostics. Current development and application of such tools and techniques along with their potential limitations in plant virology are likewise discussed in detail.