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      Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs

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          Abstract

          Inflammation is a biological response of the immune system that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. These factors may induce acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses in the heart, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, brain, intestinal tract and reproductive system, potentially leading to tissue damage or disease. Both infectious and non-infectious agents and cell damage activate inflammatory cells and trigger inflammatory signaling pathways, most commonly the NF-κB, MAPK, and JAK-STAT pathways. Here, we review inflammatory responses within organs, focusing on the etiology of inflammation, inflammatory response mechanisms, resolution of inflammation, and organ-specific inflammatory responses.

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          Most cited references106

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          Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity.

          Recognition of pathogens is mediated by a set of germline-encoded receptors that are referred to as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns (pathogen-associated molecular patterns), which are shared by large groups of microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as the PRRs in mammals and play an essential role in the recognition of microbial components. The TLRs may also recognize endogenous ligands induced during the inflammatory response. Similar cytoplasmic domains allow TLRs to use the same signaling molecules used by the interleukin 1 receptors (IL-1Rs): these include MyD88, IL-1R--associated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor--activated factor 6. However, evidence is accumulating that the signaling pathways associated with each TLR are not identical and may, therefore, result in different biological responses.
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            MAPK signalling pathways as molecular targets for anti-inflammatory therapy--from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic benefits.

            Excessive inflammation is becoming accepted as a critical factor in many human diseases, including inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative conditions, infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by a marked inflammatory reaction that is initiated by expression of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and other inflammatory mediators, including prostanoids and nitric oxide. This review discusses recent advances regarding the detrimental effects of inflammation, the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways in various diseases, and the potential molecular targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that mediate fundamental biological processes and cellular responses to external stress signals. Increased activity of MAPK, in particular p38 MAPK, and their involvement in the regulation of the synthesis of inflammation mediators at the level of transcription and translation, make them potential targets for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Inhibitors targeting p38 MAPK and JNK pathways have been developed, and preclinical data suggest that they exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. This review discusses how these novel drugs modulate the activity of the p38 MAPK and JNK signalling cascades, and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical disease models, primarily through the inhibition of the expression of inflammatory mediators. Use of MAPK inhibitors emerges as an attractive strategy because they are capable of reducing both the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their signalling. Moreover, many of these drugs are small molecules that can be administered orally, and initial results of clinical trials have shown clinical benefits in patients with chronic inflammatory disease.
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              Decoding cell death signals in liver inflammation.

              Inflammation can be either beneficial or detrimental to the liver, depending on multiple factors. Mild (i.e., limited in intensity and destined to resolve) inflammatory responses have indeed been shown to exert consistent hepatoprotective effects, contributing to tissue repair and promoting the re-establishment of homeostasis. Conversely, excessive (i.e., disproportionate in intensity and permanent) inflammation may induce a massive loss of hepatocytes and hence exacerbate the severity of various hepatic conditions, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, systemic metabolic alterations (e.g., obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disorders), alcoholic hepatitis, intoxication by xenobiotics and infection, de facto being associated with irreversible liver damage, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Both liver-resident cells (e.g., Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells) and cells that are recruited in response to injury (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells) emit pro-inflammatory signals including - but not limited to - cytokines, chemokines, lipid messengers, and reactive oxygen species that contribute to the apoptotic or necrotic demise of hepatocytes. In turn, dying hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns that-upon binding to evolutionary conserved pattern recognition receptors-activate cells of the innate immune system to further stimulate inflammatory responses, hence establishing a highly hepatotoxic feedforward cycle of inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that account for the most deleterious effect of hepatic inflammation at the cellular level, that is, the initiation of a massive cell death response among hepatocytes. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                23 January 2018
                14 December 2017
                : 9
                : 6
                : 7204-7218
                Affiliations
                1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
                2 Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Environmental Hazards of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agriculture University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Hengmin Cui, cui580420@ 123456sicau.edu.cn
                Article
                23208
                10.18632/oncotarget.23208
                5805548
                29467962
                57114ac1-9e3b-442d-8a9b-400eaabe8970
                Copyright: © 2018 Chen et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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