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      Impact Assessment of Orography on the Extreme Precipitation Event of July 2010 over Pakistan: A Numerical Study

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 5
      Advances in Meteorology
      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          The topography influences monsoon precipitation and gives rise to significant rainfall events in South Asia. The physical mechanism involved in such events includes mechanical uplifting, thermodynamics, small scale cloud processes, and large scale atmospheric circulations. The investigation into orographic precipitation is pursued by synoptic and model analysis. Deep convection occurs as warm moist airflow is channeling over steep mountains. WRF model coupled with Morrison double moment scheme is used to assess the relative impact of topography on extreme rainfall event of 26–30 July 2010 in Pakistan. Two sensitivity tests with full topography (CTL) and reduced topography by 50% (LOW) are carried out. Two distinct precipitation zones over Hindukush and Himalaya mountains are identified. The topographic changes significantly affect moisture divergence and spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation. A low level jet is created on windward side of big mountains, yielding enhanced moisture flux and instability. Eddy kinetic energy significantly changes with orographic height. Energy flux created further unstabilized atmosphere and deep convection, producing wide spread heavy rainfall in the area in Himalaya foothills. Under the set synoptic conditions, orographic orientation enhanced the moisture accumulation and deep convection, resulting in occurrence of this extreme event.

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          Most cited references45

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          Mesoscale convective systems

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            A New Double-Moment Microphysics Parameterization for Application in Cloud and Climate Models. Part I: Description

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Meteorology
                Advances in Meteorology
                Hindawi Limited
                1687-9309
                1687-9317
                2015
                2015
                : 2015
                : 1-20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
                [2 ]Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
                [3 ]College of International Education, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
                [4 ]Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
                [5 ]Beijing Meteorological Bureau, No. 44 Zizhuyuan, Haidian, Beijing 100089, China
                Article
                10.1155/2015/510417
                57116434-e57b-49d7-98ea-99d576a15a01
                © 2015

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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