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      Low shear stress induces endothelial cell apoptosis and monocyte adhesion by upregulating PECAM-1 expression

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          Abstract

          Low shear stress serves an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, with an impact on progression, but its detailed mechanisms are .not yet fully known. The present study aimed to investigate endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, as well as monocyte adhesion induced by low shear stress and the potential underlying mechanisms. The expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) was demonstrated to be enhanced in human umbilical vascular ECs with a trend that was associated with time when stimulated by low shear stress compared with unstimulated cells. EC apoptosis was increased under low shear stress compared with unstimulated cells, and knockdown of PECAM-1 inhibited this process. Furthermore, downregulation of PECAM-1 reduced monocyte adhesion induced by low shear stress compared with that in the negative control cells. Mechanistically, PECAM-1 small interfering RNA transfection increased Akt and forkhead box O1 phosphorylation under low shear stress conditions compared with that in the negative control cells. Collectively, the findings of the present study revealed that low shear stress induced EC apoptosis and monocyte adhesion by upregulating PECAM-1 expression, which suggested that PECAM-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Akt, FoxO and regulation of apoptosis.

          Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are downstream targets of the serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. The Akt kinase regulates processes of cellular proliferation and survival. Phosphorylation of FoxOs by Akt inhibits transcriptional functions of FoxOs and contributes to cell survival, growth and proliferation. Emerging evidence suggests involvement of FoxOs in diverse intracellular signaling pathways with critical roles in a number of physiological as well as pathological conditions including cancer. The FoxO signaling is regulated by their interactions with other intracellular proteins as well as their post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. FoxOs promote cell growth inhibitory and/or apoptosis signaling by either inducing expression of multiple pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2-family of mitochondria-targeting proteins, stimulating expression of death receptor ligands such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), or enhancing levels of various cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). Coupled with their ability to cross-talk with p53, FoxOs represent an important class of tumor suppressors in a variety of cancers. This review summarizes our current understanding of mechanisms by which Akt and FoxOs regulate cell growth and survival that in turn offers opportunities for development of novel strategies to combat cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: P13K-AKT-FOxO axis in cancer and aging. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            FOXOs, cancer and regulation of apoptosis.

            Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are involved in multiple signaling pathways and play critical roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes including cancer. The importance of FOXO factors ascribes them under multiple levels of regulation including phosphorylation, acetylation/deacetylation, ubiquitination and protein-protein interactions. As FOXO factors play a pivotal role in cell fate decision, mounting evidence suggests that FOXO factors function as tumor suppressors in a variety of cancers. FOXOs are actively involved in promoting apoptosis in a mitochondria-independent and -dependent manner by inducing the expression of death receptor ligands, including Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and Bcl-2 family members, such as Bim, bNIP3 and Bcl-X(L), respectively. An understanding of FOXO proteins and their biology will provide new opportunities for developing more effective therapeutic approaches to treat cancer.
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              PECAM-1: regulator of endothelial junctional integrity.

              PECAM-1 (also known as CD31) is a cellular adhesion and signaling receptor comprising six extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like homology domains, a short transmembrane domain and a 118 amino acid cytoplasmic domain that becomes serine and tyrosine phosphorylated upon cellular activation. PECAM-1 expression is restricted to blood and vascular cells. In circulating platelets and leukocytes, PECAM-1 functions largely as an inhibitory receptor that, via regulated sequential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain, limits cellular activation responses. PECAM-1 is also highly expressed at endothelial cell intercellular junctions, where it functions as a mechanosensor, as a regulator of leukocyte trafficking and in the maintenance of endothelial cell junctional integrity. In this review, we will describe (1) the functional domains of PECAM-1 and how they contribute to its barrier-enhancing properties, (2) how the physical properties of PECAM-1 influence its subcellular localization and its ability to influence endothelial cell barrier function, (3) various stimuli that initiate PECAM-1 signaling and/or function at the endothelial junction and (4) cross-talk of PECAM-1 with other junctional molecules, which can influence endothelial cell function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Med Rep
                Mol Med Rep
                Molecular Medicine Reports
                D.A. Spandidos
                1791-2997
                1791-3004
                June 2020
                08 April 2020
                08 April 2020
                : 21
                : 6
                : 2580-2588
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210006, P.R. China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui 241001, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Shaoliang Chen, Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210006, P.R. China, E-mail: chmengx@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                Contributed equally

                Article
                mmr-21-06-2580
                10.3892/mmr.2020.11060
                7185273
                32323830
                Copyright: © Xie et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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