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      The Comparative Immunological Characteristics of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Infections

      , * , *

      Frontiers in Immunology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, immunology

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Immune dysfunction and aberrant cytokine storms often lead to rapid exacerbation of the disease during late infection stages in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV patients. However, the underlying immunopathology mechanisms are not fully understood, and there has been little progress in research regarding the development of vaccines, anti-viral drugs, and immunotherapy. The newly discovered SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) is responsible for the third coronavirus pandemic in the human population, and this virus exhibits enhanced pathogenicity and transmissibility. SARS-CoV-2 is highly genetically homologous to SARS-CoV, and infection may result in a similar clinical disease (COVID-19). In this review, we provide detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis and immunological characteristics of SARS and MERS, and we present recent findings regarding the clinical features and potential immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. Host immunological characteristics of these three infections are summarised and compared. We aim to provide insights and scientific evidence regarding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and therapeutic strategies targeting this disease.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV.

            Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 (DPP IV) is a cell-surface protease belonging to the prolyloligopeptidase family. It selectively removes the N-terminal dipeptide from peptides with proline or alanine in the second position. Apart from its catalytic activity, it interacts with several proteins, for instance, adenosine deaminase, the HIV gp120 protein, fibronectin, collagen, the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and the tyrosine phosphatase CD45. DPP IV is expressed on a specific set of T lymphocytes, where it is up-regulated after activation. It is also expressed in a variety of tissues, primarily on endothelial and epithelial cells. A soluble form is present in plasma and other body fluids. DPP IV has been proposed as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for various tumors, hematological malignancies, immunological, inflammatory, psychoneuroendocrine disorders, and viral infections. DPP IV truncates many bioactive peptides of medical importance. It plays a role in glucose homeostasis through proteolytic inactivation of the incretins. DPP IV inhibitors improve glucose tolerance and pancreatic islet cell function in animal models of type 2 diabetes and in diabetic patients. The role of DPP IV/ CD26 within the immune system is a combination of its exopeptidase activity and its interactions with different molecules. This enables DPP IV/CD26 to serve as a co-stimulatory molecule to influence T cell activity and to modulate chemotaxis. DPP IV is also implicated in HIV-1 entry, malignant transformation, and tumor invasion.
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              Analysis of serum cytokines in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

               R. Sun,  Y Z Zhan,  Jack Zhang (2004)
              Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system. Although a novel coronavirus has been identified as the causative agent of SARS, the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS are not understood. In this study, sera were collected from healthy donors, patients with SARS, patients with severe SARS, and patients with SARS in convalescence. The serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor growth factor beta (TGF-beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The concentrations of IL-1 and TNF-alpha were not significantly different in different groups. The IL-6 concentration was increased in SARS patients and was significantly elevated in severe SARS patients, but the IL-6 concentrations were similar in convalescent patients and control subjects, suggesting that there was a positive relationship between the serum IL-6 concentration and SARS severity. The concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-beta were decreased in SARS patients and significantly reduced in severe SARS patients, but they were comparable in convalescent SARS patients and control subjects, suggesting that there was a negative relationship between the IL-8 and TGF-beta concentrations and SARS severity. The concentrations of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10 showed significant changes only in convalescent SARS patients. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels were decreased, while the levels of IL-10 were increased, and the differences between convalescent SARS patients and other patient groups were statistically significant. These results suggest that there are different immunoregulatory events during and after SARS and may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                14 August 2020
                2020
                14 August 2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                Department of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gennady Bocharov, Institute of Numerical Mathematics (RAS), Russia

                Reviewed by: Daria Trabattoni, University of Milan, Italy; Morgane Bomsel, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), France

                *Correspondence: Bi-ru Li libiru@ 123456hotmail.com

                This article was submitted to Viral Immunology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2020.02033
                7457039
                Copyright © 2020 Zhang, Li and Ning.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 133, Pages: 21, Words: 16828
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology

                immunology, mers-cov, sars-cov, sars-cov-2, novel coronavirus

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