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      Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies and molecular detection of trypanosomatids in Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non- Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.

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          Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

          Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.
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            A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

            Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they transmit and the animal reservoirs of the parasites.
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              Sm16, a major component of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial excretory/secretory products, prevents macrophage classical activation and delays antigen processing

              Background Schistosoma mansoni cercariae penetrate the skin by releasing excretory/secretory (E/S) products known as 0-3hRP, which are associated with immune modulation through Toll like receptor (TLR) signalling. Furthermore, these secretions contain Sm16, which when given to cells as a recombinant protein inhibits human monocyte derived cytokine responses to TLR4 and TLR3 ligands. Nonetheless, the extent and mechanism(s) of these inhibitory effects remain largely uncharacterized. Methods Murine bone marrow derived macrophages were exposed to different fractions of 0-3hRP, obtained via ultracentrifugation, or recombinant Sm16. These cells were exposed to the parasite molecules in combination with different TLR ligands, or Interferon gamma, and tested for the production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-12p40, and their ability to process antigen. Results The immunomodulatory function of 0-3hRP is enriched predominantly in the pellet fraction, which contains a greater proportion of Sm16, also corroborating the ability of recombinant Sm16 to inhibit macrophage activation in response to TLR ligands. We further demonstrate that Sm16 blocks classical activation of macrophages to LPS or IFN-γ stimulation in vitro, and that inhibition of macrophage classical activation is independent of TLR2 recognition. Finally we show that Sm16 shares the altered intracellular processing observed for 0-3hRP, and is able to delay antigen processing by macrophages. Conclusions Collectively, our findings show that Sm16 is a major component of S. mansoni cercarial E/S products, and is partly responsible for its immune-regulatory properties. Moreover, we propose that the mechanism employed by Sm16 to exert its inhibitory function is likely to be linked with alteration of endosomal trafficking and is not dependent on particular TLR receptors. Finally, we suggest that accumulation of Sm16 in the skin after percutaneous infection with S. mansoni cercariae could contribute to limiting dermal inflammation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0608-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                24 June 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 6
                Affiliations
                Grupo de Estudos em Leishmanioses–Instituto René Rachou–Fiocruz Minas–Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
                University of Ostrava, CZECH REPUBLIC
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-05836
                10.1371/journal.pone.0234445
                7314019
                32579586
                © 2020 Tanure et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 302701/2016-8
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004901, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais;
                Award ID: PPM-00792-18
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002322, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior;
                Award ID: 001
                Award Recipient :
                JDAF - 302701/2016-8 Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico ( www.cnpq.br) JDAF - PPM-00792-18 Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais ( www.fapemig.br) AT - Finance Code 001 Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior ( www.capes.gov.br). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Sand Flies
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Species Interactions
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Sand Flies
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Protozoans
                Parasitic Protozoans
                Leishmania
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Brazil
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Tropical Diseases
                Neglected Tropical Diseases
                Leishmaniasis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Parasitic Diseases
                Protozoan Infections
                Leishmaniasis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Zoonoses
                Leishmaniasis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Protozoans
                Parasitic Protozoans
                Trypanosoma
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Parasitic Diseases
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Vector-Borne Diseases
                Custom metadata
                Data are available within the manuscript.

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