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          The Cerebellum: Adaptive Prediction for Movement and Cognition.

          Over the past 30 years, cumulative evidence has indicated that cerebellar function extends beyond sensorimotor control. This view has emerged from studies of neuroanatomy, neuroimaging, neuropsychology, and brain stimulation, with the results implicating the cerebellum in domains as diverse as attention, language, executive function, and social cognition. Although the literature provides sophisticated models of how the cerebellum helps refine movements, it remains unclear how the core mechanisms of these models can be applied when considering a broader conceptualization of cerebellar function. In light of recent multidisciplinary findings, we examine how two key concepts that have been suggested as general computational principles of cerebellar function- prediction and error-based learning- might be relevant in the operation of cognitive cerebro-cerebellar loops.
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            The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

            Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be inserted into the language network with a critical role in the multisynaptic hierarchy underlying word comprehension and object naming.
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              Junctions in the meninges and marginal glia.

              The meninges of various mammals were prepared for examination with the electronmicroscope by thin sectioning or freeze-fracturing. Particular attention was given to the distribution of tight junctions in order to determine the basis for the meningeal barrier between the blood circulating in dural vessels and the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. While some dural blood vessels are fenestrated, those in the subarachnoid space are not and their component endothelial cells are joined by an extensive system of tight junctions. An extensive and continuous system of tight junctions was also found in a layer of specialized cells at the border of the arachnoid with the dura. This arachnoid barrier layer is apparently the only basis of the meningeal barrier because often cellular layers in the dura and arachnoid lack tight junctions although they are linked by gap junctions and desmosomes. In particular, tight junctions are lacking at the border of the "subdural space" which is actually a fascial plane within the dura. Tight junctions are also lacking between astrocytes at the surface of the brain but these cells are linked by gap junctions and a new type of intercellular junction. The distribution of these junctions, as well as assemblies of intramembranous particles at the astrocytic border, raises the question whether this layer might have a role in the exchange of certain substances between the brain and cerebrospinal fluid.

                Author and article information

                Brain Struct Funct
                Brain Struct Funct
                Brain Structure & Function
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                22 February 2024
                22 February 2024
                : 229
                : 2
                : 251-255
                [1 ]Donders Institute for Brain Cognition Behaviour, Radboud University, ( https://ror.org/016xsfp80) Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]University Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, IMN, UMR 5293, GIN, ( https://ror.org/057qpr032) 33000 Bordeaux, France
                [3 ]Brain Connectivity and Behaviour Laboratory, Paris, France
                [4 ]Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, ( https://ror.org/0220mzb33) London, UK
                [5 ]Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, ( https://ror.org/00671me87) Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 22 January 2024
                : 25 January 2024
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2024

                neuroccino,mri,science communication,clinical neuroanatomy,neuroscience,equity
                neuroccino, mri, science communication, clinical neuroanatomy, neuroscience, equity


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