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      Pseudomonas aeruginosabiofilm infections in cystic fibrosis: insights into pathogenic processes and treatment strategies

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          Abstract

          CF airway mucus can be infected by opportunistic microorganisms, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Once organisms are established as biofilms, even the most potent antibiotics have little effect on their viability, especially during late-stage chronic infections. Better understanding of the mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to circumvent host defenses and therapeutic intervention strategies is critical for advancing novel treatment strategies. Inflammatory injury in CF lung, role of neutrophils in pathogenesis, P. aeruginosa biofilms, mucoidy and its relationship with poor airway oxygenation, mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa biofilms in the CF airway can be killed. An understanding of the processes that P. aeruginosa undergoes during CF airway disease and clues to better treat such infections in future. The course of CF airway disease is a process involving host and microbial factors that often dictate frequency of pulmonary exacerbations, thus affecting the overall course. In the past decade significant discoveries have been made regarding the pathogenic processes used by P. aeruginosa to bypass the immune system. Many new and exciting features of P. aeruginosa now illuminate weaknesses in the organism that may render it susceptible to inexpensive compounds that force its own destruction.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Microbial pathogenesis in cystic fibrosis: mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia.

           J. Govan,  V Deretic (1996)
          Respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia play a major role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding host-pathogen interactions in CF with an emphasis on the role and control of conversion to mucoidy in P. aeruginosa, a phenomenon epitomizing the adaptation of this opportunistic pathogen to the chronic chourse of infection in CF, and on the innate resistance to antibiotics of B. cepacia, person-to-person spread, and sometimes rapidly fatal disease caused by this organism. While understanding the mechanism of conversion to mucoidy in P. aeruginosa has progressed to the point where this phenomenon has evolved into a model system for studying bacterial stress response in microbial pathogenesis, the more recent challenge with B. cepacia, which has emerged as a potent bona fide CF pathogen, is discussed in the context of clinical issues, taxonomy, transmission, and potential modes of pathogenicity.
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            Identification, timing, and signal specificity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-controlled genes: a transcriptome analysis.

            There are two interrelated acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing-signaling systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These systems, the LasR-LasI system and the RhlR-RhlI system, are global regulators of gene expression. We performed a transcriptome analysis to identify quorum-sensing-controlled genes and to better understand quorum-sensing control of P. aeruginosa gene expression. We compared gene expression in a LasI-RhlI signal mutant grown with added signals to gene expression without added signals, and we compared a LasR-RhlR signal receptor mutant to its parent. In all, we identified 315 quorum-induced and 38 quorum-repressed genes, representing about 6% of the P. aeruginosa genome. The quorum-repressed genes were activated in the stationary phase in quorum-sensing mutants but were not activated in the parent strain. The analysis of quorum-induced genes suggests that the signal specificities are on a continuum and that the timing of gene expression is on a continuum (some genes are induced early in growth, most genes are induced at the transition from the logarithmic phase to the stationary phase, and some genes are induced during the stationary phase). In general, timing was not related to signal concentration. We suggest that the level of the signal receptor, LasR, is a critical trigger for quorum-activated gene expression. Acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing appears to be a system that allows ordered expression of hundreds of genes during P. aeruginosa growth in culture.
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              Sociomicrobiology: the connections between quorum sensing and biofilms.

              In the past decade, significant debate has surrounded the relative contributions of genetic determinants versus environmental conditions to certain types of human behavior. While this debate goes on, it is with a certain degree of irony that microbiologists studying aspects of bacterial community behavior face the same questions. Information regarding two social phenomena exhibited by bacteria, quorum sensing and biofilm development, is reviewed here. These two topics have been inextricably linked, possibly because biofilms and quorum sensing represent two areas in which microbiologists focus on social aspects of bacteria. We will examine what is known about this linkage and discuss areas that might be developed. In addition, we believe that these two aspects of bacterial behavior represent a small part of the social repertoire of bacteria. Bacteria exhibit many social activities and they represent a model for dissecting social behavior at the genetic level. Therefore, we introduce the term 'sociomicrobiology'.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
                Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
                Informa Healthcare
                1472-8222
                1744-7631
                January 08 2010
                February 2010
                January 08 2010
                February 2010
                : 14
                : 2
                : 117-130
                Article
                10.1517/14728220903454988
                20055712
                © 2010

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