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      Precision Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton

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          Abstract

          The fields of particle and nuclear physics have undertaken extensive programs to search for evidence of physics beyond that explained by current theories. The observation of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider completed the set of particles predicted by the Standard Model (SM), currently the best description of fundamental particles and forces. However, the theory's limitations include a failure to predict fundamental parameters and the inability to account for dark matter/energy, gravity, and the matter-antimater asymmetry in the universe, among other phenomena. Given the lack of additional particles found so far through direct searches in the post-Higgs era, indirect searches utilizing precise measurements of well predicted SM observables allow highly targeted alternative tests for physics beyond the SM. Indirect searches have the potential to reach mass/energy scales beyond those directly accessible by today's high-energy accelerators. The value of the weak charge of the proton Q_W^p is an example of such an indirect search, as it sets the strength of the proton's interaction with particles via the well-predicted neutral electroweak force. Parity violation (invariance under spatial inversion (x,y,z) -> (-x,-y,-z)) is violated only in the weak interaction, thus providing a unique tool to isolate the weak interaction in order to measure the proton's weak charge. Here we report Q_W^p=0.0719+-0.0045, as extracted from our measured parity-violating (PV) polarized electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A_ep=-226.5+-9.3 ppb. Our value of Q_W^p is in excellent agreement with the SM, and sets multi-TeV-scale constraints on any semi-leptonic PV physics not described within the SM.

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          Most cited references 20

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          New Tests for Quark and Lepton Substructure

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              The strange quark contribution to the proton's magnetic moment

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                20 May 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41586-018-0096-0
                1905.08283

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Nature 557, 207-211 (2018)
                Direct link to Nature Version "https://rdcu.be/954U"
                nucl-ex

                Nuclear physics

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